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Cities, Regions and Competitiveness

Turok I. (2004) Cities, regions and competitiveness, Regional Studies38, 1061-1075. Competitiveness is a complex concept used in a variety of ways and contexts. The paper reviews some of the main ideas, particularly as they apply to cities and regions. Its definition should include the relative position of a region's firms in external markets, the productivity of local resources and the extent to which they are used. Competition takes both an institutionalized form (local public agencies competing overtly for investment and other resources) and, more importantly, a less organized form involving firms trading in wider markets. There are two contrasting perspectives on the competitive advantages of city-regions. One emphasizes the benefits of scale and diversity that flow from concentrations of economic activity. The other stresses the quality of the interactions between firms and supporting institutions. Recent studies suggest that the significance of localized business networks or clusters might be exaggerated and that a broader perspective of city-region competitiveness is required.Turok I. (2004) Les grandes villes, les regions et la competitivite, Regional Studies38, 1061-1075. La competitivite est une notion complexe que l'on emploie dans diverses facons et contextes. Cet article cherche a faire la critique de quelques-unes des principales idees, notamment en ce qui concerne les villes et les regions. Sa definition devrait inclure le positionnement relatif des entreprises regionales sur les marches exterieurs, la productivite des ressources locales, et leur taux d'utilisation. La concurrence prend et un caractere institutionnalise (sous forme d'organismes gouvernementaux qui se font ouvertement concurrence pour l'investissement et d'autres ressources) et, plus important encore, un caractere moins organise impliquant des entreprises qui font du commerce sur des marches plus vastes. Il y a deux points de vue opposes quant a l'avantage competitif des cites-regions. L'un souligne les atouts de l'echelle et de la diversite qui proviennent de la concentration de l'activite economique. L'autre met l'accent plutot sur la qualite des rapports entre les entreprises et les services d'assistance technique. Des etudes recentes laissent supposer que l'importance des reseaux ou des regroupements commerciaux de proximite s'exagere et qu'il faut une interpretation plus large de la competitivite des cites-regions.Turok I. (2004) Grossstadte, Regionen und Konkurrenzfahigkeit, Regional Studies38, 1061-1075. Konkurrenzfahigkeit ist ein komplexer Begriff, der auf verschiedene Arten und in verschiedenen Zusammenhangen angewandt wird. Dieser Aufsatz bespricht einige der meist gebrauchten Ideen, besonders im Hinblick auf Grossstadte und Regionen. Seine Definition sollte die relative Stellung der Firmen einer Region im Aussenhandel enthalten, sowie die Produktivitat einheimischer Mittel, und das Ausmass, in dem sie verwertet werden. Wettbewerb erscheint sowohl in institutionalisierter Form (wenn ortsansassige offentliche Agenturen sich offen um Investierungen und andere Mittel bewerben), und, was wichtiger ist, in weniger organisierter Form, wenn Firmen auf weiter entfernten Markten handeln. Man kann die Wettbewerbsvorteile einer Grossstadtregion aus zwei gegensatzlichen Perspektiven sehen: die eine betont die Vorteile von Umfang und Vielfalt, die sich aus Konzentrationen wirtschaftlicher Betatigung ergeben, die andere legt Gewicht auf die Qualitat der gegenseitigen Einwirkungen auf Firmen und Ruckhalt gewahrenden Institutionen. In jungster Zeit durchgefuhrte Untersuchungen legen nahe, dass die Bedeutung ortlich begrenzter Geschaftsnetzwerke oder Cluster ubertrieben sein durfte, und durch eine breitere Perspektive der Konkurrenzfahigkeit von Grossstadtregionen ersetzt werden sollte.Turok I. (2004) Ciudades, regiones y competitividad, Regional Studies38, 1061-1075. El concepto de competitividad es un concepto complejo que se ha utilizado de muchas formas y en muchos contextos distintos. Este articulo revisa algunas de las ideas principales, particularmente aquellas que se aplican a ciudades y regiones. Su definicion deberia incluir la posicion relativa que las empresas de una region ocupan en los mercados externos, la productividad de los recursos locales, y el grado hasta el cual se hace uso de ellos. La nocion de competicion adquiere tanto una forma institucionalizada (organismos publicos locales que compiten abiertamente por inversiones y otros recursos) y, mas importante todavia, una forma menos organizada que implica el comercio en mercados mas amplios por parte de las empresas. Existen dos perspectivas opuestas sobre las ventajas competitivas de las ciudades-regiones. Una de ellas enfatiza los beneficios de la escala y la diversidad que fluyen de las concentraciones de actividad economica. La otra acentua la calidad de las interacciones entre las empresas y las instituciones de apoyo. Estudios recientes sugieren que puede que se haya exagerado la significancia de redes comerciales o de clusters localizados y que se requiere una punto de vista mas amplio cuando se habla de competitividad ciudad-region.

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Article provided by Taylor & Francis Journals in its journal Regional Studies.

Volume (Year): 38 (2004)
Issue (Month): 9 ()
Pages: 1069-1083

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Handle: RePEc:taf:regstd:v:38:y:2004:i:9:p:1069-1083
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