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Competition, Collaboration and Cooperation: An Uneasy Triangle in Networks of Firms and Regions

  • Karen Polenske
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    Polenske K. R. (2004) Competition, collaboration and cooperation: an uneasy triangle in networks of firms and regions, Regional Studies38, 1021-1035. Many analysts maintain that firms can meet the challenges of global competition by establishing improved competitive, collaborative or cooperative activities, hereafter called 'the 3Cs'. The paper proposes that effective industrial and regional competition is often constrained by perceived and real spatial, labour, and organizational boundaries that limit the 3C relationships within the networks of firms and regions. The paper makes three contributions to the literature. First, it distinguishes collaboration from cooperation as collective types of behaviour and asserts that both can form part of an uneasy triangle of industrial interrelationships with competition. Second, it uses the 3C relationships to help explain the 'success' of industrial organizations as portrayed by analysts in alternative industrial and regional restructuring models, namely the Italian, Japanese and Global models. It examines how analysts deal with the spatial, labour and organizational boundaries in these alternative models. Third, it shows that none of the models was sufficiently general to cover all the restructuring issues as the world has moved into the globalization form of development. Throughout, the paper asserts that an understanding of the interrelationships among the 3Cs and the primary constraints affecting those relationships will help local and national government and industrial decision-makers make effective firm, labour and regional policies.Polenske K. R. (2004) La concurrence, la collaboration, et la cooperation: une alliance boiteuse triangulaire au sein des reseaux d'entreprises et de regions, Regional Studies38, 1021-1035. De nombreux analystes affirment que les entreprises peuvent relever le defi de la concurrence mondialisee par etablir de meilleures activites du point de vue de la concurrence, de la collaboration et de la cooperation, appelees ci-apres 'les trois C'. On laisse supposer que la concurrence industrialo-regionale efficace se voit entraver par des contraintes geographiques percues et reelles a l'emploi et a l'organisation qui limitent les rapports 3C au sein des reseaux d'entreprises et de regions. L'apport a la documentation est a trois temps. Primo, on distingue la collaboration de la cooperation comme un comportement plutot collectif, et on affirme que tous les deux peuvent faire partie d'une alliance boiteuse triangulaire de relations industrielles avec la concurrence. Secundo, on se sert des rapports 3C afin d'expliquer la 'reussite' des etablissements industriels que presentent les analystes dans divers modeles de la restructuration industrielle et regionale, a savoir les modeles italien, japonais, et mondial. Tertio, on laisse voir que pas un modele n'etait suffisamment general pour embrasser toutes les questions de restructuration au fur et a mesure de la mondialisation. Tout au long de l'article, on affirme qu'une meilleure comprehension des relations parmi les 3C et parmi les principales contraintes qui touchent ces relations-la aidera les administrations nationale et regionale, et les decideurs industriels, a mettre au point des politiques efficaces visant les entreprises, l'emploi, et les regions.Polenske K. R. (2004) Konkurrenz, Kollaboration und Kooperation: eine problematische Dreiecksbeziehung in Netzwerken von Firmen und Regionen, Regional Studies38, 1021-1035. Manche Analytiker behaupten, dass Firmen der Herausforderung des globalen Wettbewerbs nachkommen konnen, indem sie verbesserte, konkurrenzfahige, kollaborative und kooperative Betatigungsfelder aufbauen, die im Folgenden als 'die 3 C' (=competitive, collaborative-comparative) zusammengefasst werden. Es wird die These aufgestellt, dass wirksamer industrieller und regionaler Wettbewerb oft durch so aufgefasste und tatsachliche raumliche Arbeits-und Organisationsgrenzen eingeengt wird, welche auch die 3C Beziehungen innerhalb der Firmen und Regionennetzwerke einschranken. Es werden drei Beitrage zur diesbezuglichen Literatur vorgelegt: erstens eine Unterscheidung von Kollaboration und Kooperation als kollektive Verhaltenstypen, sowie die Behauptung, dass beide Teil eines problematischen Dreiecks industrieller Beziehungen mit Konkurrenz bilden konnen; zweitens werden die 3C Beziehungen dazu benutzt, den 'Erfolg' industrieller Organisationen erklaren zu helfen, wie von Analytikern in alternativen industriellen und regionalen Umstrukturierungsmodellen, z.B. den italienischen, japanischen und globalen Modellen bereits vorgestellt. Es wird untersucht, wie Analytiker mit den raumlichen, arbeitstechnischen und organisatorischen Grenzen in diesen alternativen Modellen fertig werden. Drittens wird gezeigt, dass keins dieser Modelle ausreichend allgemeine Ziele aufwies, um alle Umstrukturierungsfragen behandeln zu konnen, da die Welt sich auf die Entwicklungsform der Globalisierung zubewegt hat. In der ganzen Arbeit wird betont, dass Verstandnis der Beziehungen zwischen den 3Cs und den Hauptbeschrankungen, denen diese unterliegen, Gemeinde-und Landesverwaltungen sowie Industriellen, die Entscheidungen zu treffen haben, helfen werden, eine wirksame Firmen-, Arbeits- und Regionalpolitik zu entwerfen.Polenske K. R. (2004) Competicion, colaboracion y co-operacion: un incomodo triangulo en las redes de empresas y regiones, Regional Studies38, 1021- 1035. Muchos analistas mantienen que las empresas pueden hacer frente a los desafios que conlleva la competicion global mediante una mejora en sus actividades competitivas, colaborativas y co-operativas, a lo que de aqui en adelante se referira como las 3Cs. El articulo propone que una competicion regional e industrial efectiva se ve a menudo restringida por limites organizativos, laborales y espaciales tanto reales como percibidos que limitan las relaciones entre las 3Cs dentro de las redes de empresas y regiones. Este articulo contribuye a la literatura de tres formas. En primer lugar, hace una distincion entre colaboracion y co-operacion como tipos de comportamiento colectivo, y afirma que ambos pueden formar parte de un incomodo triangulo de interrelaciones industriales con competicion. En segundo lugar, hace uso de las relaciones entre las 3Cs para explicar el exito de las organizaciones industriales tal y como las presentan los analistas en los modelos alternativos de reestructuracion regional e industrial, siendo estos el modelo italiano, el japones y el global. Examina como los analistas tratan los limites organizativos, laborales y espaciales en estos modelos alternativos. En tercer lugar, muestro que ninguno de estos modelos fue lo suficientemente general como para abarcar todas las cuestiones de reestructuracion a medida que el mundo se ha encaminado hacia una forma globalizadora de desarrollo. En todo momento, se afirma que un entendimiento de las interrelaciones entre las 3Cs y de las principales restricciones que afectan dichas relaciones ayudara a lo tomadores de decisiones tanto locales, nacionales como idustriales a disenar politicas regionales, laborales y de empresa efectivas.

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    Article provided by Taylor & Francis Journals in its journal Regional Studies.

    Volume (Year): 38 (2004)
    Issue (Month): 9 ()
    Pages: 1029-1043

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    Handle: RePEc:taf:regstd:v:38:y:2004:i:9:p:1029-1043
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