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Knowledge Spillovers, Agglomeration and Macroeconomic Growth: An Empirical Approach


  • Attila Varga
  • Hans Schalk


Varga A. and Schalk H. J. (2004) Knowledge spillovers, agglomeration and macroeconomic growth: an empirical approach, Regional Studies38, 977-989. Endogenous growth theory emphasizes the role of knowledge spillovers in macroeconomic growth but leaves out the regional dimension, although substantial evidence has been provided in the recent empirical economics literature that a significant fraction of knowledge spillovers tends to be localized. The new economic geography literature extends this framework by pointing to the interplay between spillovers and agglomeration and to the resulting cumulative regional growth, but until the recently, it has left out the macroeconomic dimension. This paper takes a step in the direction of empirically investigating the role of localized factors of technological change in macroeconomic growth. It is suggested that not only technological change, but also spatial economic structure should be treated endogenously in economic growth models. It is argued that the particular spatial structure of the economy is an important factor in macroeconomic growth. To demonstrate this, an empirical modelling framework is developed that links a model of localized knowledge production with a complete macroeconometric model and applies Hungarian data in concrete investigations. Varga A. et Schalk H. J. (2004) Les retombees de connaissance, l'agglomeration et la croissance economique: une facon empirique, Regional Studies38, 977-989. La theorie de la croissance endogene souligne le role des retombees de connaissance dans la croissance macroeconomique mais ne considere pas la dimension regionale, bien qu'il y ait bien des preuves dans la documentation recente de l'economie empirique en faveur de la localisation d'une part non-negligeable des retombees de connaissance. La documentation de la nouvelle geographie economique developpe ce cadre en indiquant l'interaction entre les retombees et l'agglomeration, et la croissance regionale cumulee qui en resulte, mais, jusqu'aux annees recentes, on n'a pas considere la dimension macroeconomique. Cet article cherche a aller plus loin dans le but d'examiner de facon empirique le role des facteurs technologiques localises qui influencent la croissance macroeconomique. On laisse supposer que non seulement la transformation technologique mais aussi la structure economique geographique devraient etre traitees de facon endogene dans les modeles de la croissance economique. On soutient que la structure geographique toute particuliere de l'economie s'avere un facteur cle dans la croissance macroeconomique. Afin de le demontrer, une modelisation empirique se voit developper qui relie un modele de la production de la connaissance localisee a un modele macroeconometrique entier, et applique des donnees pour la Hongrie a des etudes concretes. Varga A. und Schalk H. J. (2004) Verbreitung von Fachkenntnissen, Agglomeration und makrookonomisches Wachstum: ein empirischer Ansatz, Regional Studies38, 977-989. Die endogene Wachstumstheorie betont die Rolle der Verbreitung von Fachkenntnissen bei makrookonomischem Wachstum, jedoch ohne die regionale Dimension zu berucksichtigen, obwohl die kurzlich erschienene Literatur der europaischen Wirtschaftswissenschaft uberzeugende Beweise dafur geliefert hat, dass ein signifkanter Bruchteil der Verbreitung von Fachkenntnissen dazu tendiert, auf wenige Orte begrenzt zu sein. Die Literatur der Neuen Wirtschaftsgeographie erweitert ihren Rahmen, indem sie auf das Zusammenspiel von Verbreitung von Fachkenntnissen und Agglomeration verweist, und auf das sich daraus ergebende Gesamtwachstum in einer Region, das jedoch bis vor kurzem nicht in die makrookonomische Dimension miteinbezogen wurde. Dieser Aufsatz geht einen Schtritt weiter in Richtung empirischer Untersuchung der Rolle ortlich begrenzte Faktoren technologischen Wandels auf dem Gebiete makrookonomischen Wachstums. Err legt nahe, dass nicht nur technologischer Wandel, sondern auch raumliche Wirtschaftsstruktur endogen behandelt werden sollte. Die Autoren treten dafur ein, dass die ihr eigene raumliche Struktur einer Wirtschaft einen wichtigen Faktor bei makrookonomischem Wachstum darstellt. Um dies zu demonstrieren, wird ein empirischer Modellrahmen enwickelt, der ein Modell ortlich begrenzten Erwerbens von Fachkenntnissen mit einem kompletten makroonomischen Modell verknupft, und sich bei Untersuchungen konkreter Falle ungarischer Daten bedient. Varga A. y Schalk H. J. (2004) Desbordamientos de conocimento, aglomeracion y crecimiento macroeconomico: un efoque empirico, Regional Studies38, 977-989. La teoria de crecimiento endogeno enfatiza el rol que los desbordamientos de conocimiento tienen en el crecimiento macroeconomico pero no incluye la dimension regional, aunque la literatura reciente sobre economia empirica ha ofrecido una evidencia sustancial acerca de que una fraccion significativa de los desbordamientos de conocimiento tiende a estar localizada. La literatura en torno a la nueva geografia economica extiende este marco senalando la interaccion entre los desbordamientos y la aglomeracion y el crecimiento regional cumulativo resultante, pero hasta hace poco no incluia la dimension macroeconomica. Nuestro articulo nos lleva un paso mas adelante a investigar empiricamente el rol que los factores localizados del cambio tecnologico tieaen en el crecimiento macroeconomico. Se sugiere que no solo el cambio tecnologico sino tambien la estructura economica espacial deberian tratarse endogenamente en los modelos de crecimiento economico. Nosotros argumentamos que la particular estructura espacial de la economia es un factor importante en el crecimiento macroeconomico. Con el proposito de demostrarlo se desarrolla un marco de modelacion empirica que vincula un modelo de produccion localizada de conocimento con un modelo macroenomico completo y aplica datos de Hungria a investigaciones concretas.

Suggested Citation

  • Attila Varga & Hans Schalk, 2004. "Knowledge Spillovers, Agglomeration and Macroeconomic Growth: An Empirical Approach," Regional Studies, Taylor & Francis Journals, vol. 38(8), pages 977-989.
  • Handle: RePEc:taf:regstd:v:38:y:2004:i:8:p:977-989
    DOI: 10.1080/0034340042000280974

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    3. Roberta Capello & Camilla Lenzi, 2016. "Innovation modes and entrepreneurial behavioral characteristics in regional growth," Small Business Economics, Springer, vol. 47(4), pages 875-893, December.
    4. Andrea Caragliu & Camilla Lenzi & Andrea Caragliu & Camilla Lenzi, 2013. "Structural elements and dynamics in territorial patterns of innovation: A perspective through European case studies," Regional Science Policy & Practice, Wiley Blackwell, vol. 5(4), pages 369-383, November.
    5. Shu-Heng Chen & Bin-Tzong Chie & Tong Zhang, 2015. "Network-Based Trust Games: An Agent-Based Model," Journal of Artificial Societies and Social Simulation, Journal of Artificial Societies and Social Simulation, vol. 18(3), pages 1-5.
    6. Enrico Santarelli & Marco Vivarelli, 2007. "Entrepreneurship and the process of firms’ entry, survival and growth," Industrial and Corporate Change, Oxford University Press, vol. 16(3), pages 455-488, June.
    7. Roberta Capello & Camilla Lenzi, 2015. "Una valutazione della rilevanza e utilità delle politiche di Ricerca e sviluppo tecnologico dell’Unione Europea," SCIENZE REGIONALI, FrancoAngeli Editore, vol. 2015(3 Suppl.), pages 13-36.
    8. Varga, Attila & Sebestyén, Tamás, 2015. "Innováció Kelet-Közép-Európában. Az EU keretprogramjaiban való részvétel szerepe az innovációs teljesítményben
      [Innovation in Central East Europe. The role played in innovation performance by parti
      ," Közgazdasági Szemle (Economic Review - monthly of the Hungarian Academy of Sciences), Közgazdasági Szemle Alapítvány (Economic Review Foundation), vol. 0(9), pages 881-908.
    9. Torben Klarl, 2011. "A Spatial related Note on Entrepreneurship and Economic Growth," ERSA conference papers ersa11p278, European Regional Science Association.
    10. repec:kap:sbusec:v:49:y:2017:i:4:d:10.1007_s11187-017-9871-9 is not listed on IDEAS
    11. Mueller, Pamela, 2005. "Exploring the knowledge filter: how entrepreneurship and university-industry relations drive economic growth," Freiberg Working Papers 2005,17, TU Bergakademie Freiberg, Faculty of Economics and Business Administration.
    12. G. Page West III & Charles E. Bamford & Jesse W. Marsden, 2008. "Contrasting Entrepreneurial Economic Developments in Less-Developed Latin American Markets: Applications and Extensions of Resource-Based Theory," Discussion Paper Series 2008-03, McColl School of Business, Queens University of Charlotte.
    13. Mueller, Pamela, 2006. "Exploring the knowledge filter: How entrepreneurship and university-industry relationships drive economic growth," Research Policy, Elsevier, vol. 35(10), pages 1499-1508, December.
    14. Lay, Gunter & Brandt, Tasso & Maloca, Spomenka & Schröter, Marcus & Stahlecker, Thomas, 2009. "Auswirkungen der Organisation und der Außenorientierung von Dienstleistungen auf Innovationen," Studien zum deutschen Innovationssystem 14-2009, Expertenkommission Forschung und Innovation (EFI) - Commission of Experts for Research and Innovation, Berlin.
    15. Attila Varga & Péter Járosi & Tamás Sebestyén, 2011. "Modeling the growth effects of regional knowledge production: The GMR-Europe model and its applications for EU Framework Program policy impact simulations," ERSA conference papers ersa11p1426, European Regional Science Association.
    16. Berlemann, Michael & Jahn, Vera, 2014. "Governance, Firm Size and Innovative Capacity: Regional Empirical Evidence for Germany," Working Paper 150/2014, Helmut Schmidt University, Hamburg.
    17. O'Connor, Allan, 2013. "A conceptual framework for entrepreneurship education policy: Meeting government and economic purposes," Journal of Business Venturing, Elsevier, vol. 28(4), pages 546-563.
    18. repec:spr:scient:v:91:y:2012:i:3:d:10.1007_s11192-011-0577-5 is not listed on IDEAS
    19. Esteban Fernández-Vázquez, 2014. "Estimating the effect of technological factors from samples affected by collinearity: a data-weighted entropy approach," Empirical Economics, Springer, vol. 47(2), pages 717-731, September.
    20. Roberta Capello & Camilla Lenzi, 2013. "Territorial patterns of innovation: a taxonomy of innovative regions in Europe," The Annals of Regional Science, Springer;Western Regional Science Association, vol. 51(1), pages 119-154, August.
    21. Balázs Páger & Éva Komlósi, 2015. "Agglomeration effects on countries' competitiveness and entrepreneurial performance," ERSA conference papers ersa15p503, European Regional Science Association.
    22. Elisabeta JABA & Alina Mariuca IONESCU & Corneliu IATU & Christiana Brigitte BALAN, 2009. "The Evaluation Of The Regional Profile Of The Economic Development In Romania," Analele Stiintifice ale Universitatii "Alexandru Ioan Cuza" din Iasi - Stiinte Economice, Alexandru Ioan Cuza University, Faculty of Economics and Business Administration, vol. 56, pages 537-549, November.
    23. Elekes, Zoltán, 2016. "A regionális növekedés új tényezői az evolúciós gazdaságföldrajzi kutatásokban. A változatosság és a technológiai közelség
      [The new factors of regional growth in research into evolutionary economic
      ," Közgazdasági Szemle (Economic Review - monthly of the Hungarian Academy of Sciences), Közgazdasági Szemle Alapítvány (Economic Review Foundation), vol. 0(3), pages 307-329.


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