IDEAS home Printed from
   My bibliography  Save this article

Both Marshall and Jacobs were Right!


  • Andrea Caragliu
  • Laura de Dominicis
  • Henri L.F. de Groot


This article adds to the empirical evidence on the impact of agglomeration externalities on regional growth along three main dimensions. On the basis of data on 259 Europe NUTS2 (Nomenclature of Territorial Units for Statistics) regions and 15 NACE (Nomenclature statistique des Activités économiques dans la Communauté Européenne) 1.1 2-digit industries for the period 1990–2007, we show that agglomeration externalities are stronger in technology-intensive industries, also after controlling for sorting; that specialization externalities are stronger for low density regions, while diversity matters more for denser urban areas; and, finally, that Jacobs externalities comprise a pure diversification effect (related variety) and a portfolio effect (unrelated variety), although evidence of positive effects on regional growth is only found for the latter. An additional contribution of this article is to extend the analysis on the basis of a full geographical coverage of European NUTS2 regions, with the aim to generalize the empirical identification of the impacts of specialization and diversification externalities with respect to the existing literature. Our results are robust to a rich set of consistency checks, including the use of spatial autoregressive models with autoregressive disturbances, used to assess to what extent the effects of agglomeration externalities are localized.

Suggested Citation

  • Andrea Caragliu & Laura de Dominicis & Henri L.F. de Groot, 2016. "Both Marshall and Jacobs were Right!," Economic Geography, Taylor & Francis Journals, vol. 92(1), pages 87-111, January.
  • Handle: RePEc:taf:recgxx:v:92:y:2016:i:1:p:87-111
    DOI: 10.1080/00130095.2015.1094371

    Download full text from publisher

    File URL:
    Download Restriction: Access to full text is restricted to subscribers.

    As the access to this document is restricted, you may want to search for a different version of it.


    Citations are extracted by the CitEc Project, subscribe to its RSS feed for this item.

    Cited by:

    1. repec:eee:tefoso:v:142:y:2019:i:c:p:373-383 is not listed on IDEAS
    2. Martin Gornig & Alexander Schiersch, 2019. "Agglomeration Economies and the Firm TFP: Different Effects across Industries," Discussion Papers of DIW Berlin 1788, DIW Berlin, German Institute for Economic Research.

    More about this item


    Access and download statistics


    All material on this site has been provided by the respective publishers and authors. You can help correct errors and omissions. When requesting a correction, please mention this item's handle: RePEc:taf:recgxx:v:92:y:2016:i:1:p:87-111. See general information about how to correct material in RePEc.

    For technical questions regarding this item, or to correct its authors, title, abstract, bibliographic or download information, contact: (Chris Longhurst). General contact details of provider: .

    If you have authored this item and are not yet registered with RePEc, we encourage you to do it here. This allows to link your profile to this item. It also allows you to accept potential citations to this item that we are uncertain about.

    We have no references for this item. You can help adding them by using this form .

    If you know of missing items citing this one, you can help us creating those links by adding the relevant references in the same way as above, for each refering item. If you are a registered author of this item, you may also want to check the "citations" tab in your RePEc Author Service profile, as there may be some citations waiting for confirmation.

    Please note that corrections may take a couple of weeks to filter through the various RePEc services.

    IDEAS is a RePEc service hosted by the Research Division of the Federal Reserve Bank of St. Louis . RePEc uses bibliographic data supplied by the respective publishers.