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Volatility forecasts and at-the-money implied volatility: a multi-component ARCH approach and its relation to market models

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  • Gilles Zumbach

Abstract

This article explores the relationships between several forecasts for the volatility built from multi-scale linear ARCH processes, and linear market models for the forward variance. This shows that the structures of the forecast equations are identical, but with different dependencies on the forecast horizon. The process equations for the forward variance are induced by the process equations for an ARCH model, but postulated in a market model. In the ARCH case, they are different from the usual diffusive type. The conceptual differences between both approaches and their implication for volatility forecasts are analysed. The volatility forecast is compared with the realized volatility (the volatility that will occur between date t and t + ΔT), and the implied volatility (corresponding to an at-the-money option with expiry at t + ΔT). For the ARCH forecasts, the parameters are set a priori. An empirical analysis across multiple time horizons ΔT shows that a forecast provided by an I-GARCH(1) process (one time scale) does not capture correctly the dynamics of the realized volatility. An I-GARCH(2) process (two time scales, similar to GARCH(1,1)) is better, while a long-memory LM-ARCH process (multiple time scales) replicates correctly the dynamics of the implied and realized volatilities and delivers consistently good forecasts for the realized volatility.

Suggested Citation

  • Gilles Zumbach, 2011. "Volatility forecasts and at-the-money implied volatility: a multi-component ARCH approach and its relation to market models," Quantitative Finance, Taylor & Francis Journals, vol. 11(1), pages 101-113.
  • Handle: RePEc:taf:quantf:v:11:y:2011:i:1:p:101-113
    DOI: 10.1080/14697681003785942
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