IDEAS home Printed from
   My bibliography  Save this article

The relationship between Co 2 emissions, energy consumption, economic growth and FDI: the case of Turkey


  • Korhan Gökmenoğlu
  • Nigar Taspinar


This study investigates the relevance of the environmental Kuznets curve (EKC) hypothesis in Turkey for the period 1974--2010 using carbon dioxide (CO 2 ) emissions, energy consumption, economic growth, and foreign direct investment (FDI) variables. The long-run equilibrium relationship among CO 2 emissions, energy consumption, economic growth, and FDI is revealed using the bounds test. The error correction model under autoregressive-distributed lag mechanism suggests that CO 2 emissions converge to their long-run equilibrium level by a 49.2% speed of adjustment every year by the contribution of energy consumption, economic growth, and FDI. The Toda--Yamamoto (1995) causality test results imply that carbon emissions and FDI, energy consumption, and CO 2 emissions have bidirectional causal relationships. On the other hand, there are unidirectional causal relationships running from economic growth and energy consumption to FDI and from economic growth to energy consumption. Our findings provide evidence of the validity of the pollution haven hypothesis, in addition to the scale effect, and the EKC in the case of Turkey.

Suggested Citation

  • Korhan Gökmenoğlu & Nigar Taspinar, 2016. "The relationship between Co 2 emissions, energy consumption, economic growth and FDI: the case of Turkey," The Journal of International Trade & Economic Development, Taylor & Francis Journals, vol. 25(5), pages 706-723, August.
  • Handle: RePEc:taf:jitecd:v:25:y:2016:i:5:p:706-723
    DOI: 10.1080/09638199.2015.1119876

    Download full text from publisher

    File URL:
    Download Restriction: Access to full text is restricted to subscribers.

    As the access to this document is restricted, you may want to search for a different version of it.


    Citations are extracted by the CitEc Project, subscribe to its RSS feed for this item.

    Cited by:

    1. Mavikela, Nomahlubi & Khobai, Hlalefang, 2018. "Investigating the Link Between Foreign direct investment, Energy consumption and Economic growth in Argentina," MPRA Paper 83960, University Library of Munich, Germany.
    2. repec:eco:journ2:2017-03-23 is not listed on IDEAS
    3. repec:eco:journ2:2018-01-23 is not listed on IDEAS
    4. repec:eee:appene:v:211:y:2018:i:c:p:218-229 is not listed on IDEAS
    5. repec:eee:energy:v:160:y:2018:i:c:p:1115-1123 is not listed on IDEAS

    More about this item


    Access and download statistics


    All material on this site has been provided by the respective publishers and authors. You can help correct errors and omissions. When requesting a correction, please mention this item's handle: RePEc:taf:jitecd:v:25:y:2016:i:5:p:706-723. See general information about how to correct material in RePEc.

    For technical questions regarding this item, or to correct its authors, title, abstract, bibliographic or download information, contact: (Chris Longhurst). General contact details of provider: .

    If you have authored this item and are not yet registered with RePEc, we encourage you to do it here. This allows to link your profile to this item. It also allows you to accept potential citations to this item that we are uncertain about.

    We have no references for this item. You can help adding them by using this form .

    If you know of missing items citing this one, you can help us creating those links by adding the relevant references in the same way as above, for each refering item. If you are a registered author of this item, you may also want to check the "citations" tab in your RePEc Author Service profile, as there may be some citations waiting for confirmation.

    Please note that corrections may take a couple of weeks to filter through the various RePEc services.

    IDEAS is a RePEc service hosted by the Research Division of the Federal Reserve Bank of St. Louis . RePEc uses bibliographic data supplied by the respective publishers.