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Systems connectivity between social, cultural and economic factors and housing environments associated with TB transmission in slums


  • Ka Man Lai
  • Zimuzo H. Ozuah
  • Peter Williams
  • Livia S. Piccinini


Several studies have shown that the risk of tuberculosis (TB) infection in slums is high due to their overcrowded nature and deplorable housing conditions. This paper investigated a wider connectivity between housing environments and social, cultural and economic factors and used a system engineering approach to build a generic model to estimate the TB transmission risk and to facilitate the application of urban planning and engineering to improve the health of slums. Key factors were identified through literature review, while the Wells and Riley equation, which formulates the kinetics of TB transmission, was used to define the engineering parameters. A systems map was developed using a systems engineering tool, STELLA, enhancing visualisation and quantification of the impact these factors have on the housing performance.

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  • Ka Man Lai & Zimuzo H. Ozuah & Peter Williams & Livia S. Piccinini, 2012. "Systems connectivity between social, cultural and economic factors and housing environments associated with TB transmission in slums," Journal of Environmental Planning and Management, Taylor & Francis Journals, vol. 55(3), pages 355-367, June.
  • Handle: RePEc:taf:jenpmg:v:55:y:2012:i:3:p:355-367 DOI: 10.1080/09640568.2011.601190

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    References listed on IDEAS

    1. Frances Ruane & Xiaoheng Zhang, 2007. "Location Choices of the Pharmaceutical Industry in Europe after 1992," The Institute for International Integration Studies Discussion Paper Series iiisdp220, IIIS.
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