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An exploration of golf and voluntary environmental programmes

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  • Dino Michael Minoli
  • Mark Thomas Smith

Abstract

Golf is a major and expanding sport, leisure and tourism activity with significant environmental impacts. The impacts of golf and other sports facilities are increasingly addressed through Voluntary Environmental Programmes (VEPs). Since the late-1980s, VEPs have gained popularity because they theoretically overcome the weaknesses of environmental legislation, improve environmental performance beyond minimum legal compliance and confer competitive advantage. Yet their effectiveness is contested and they are only partially accepted. There is very limited research on the growing participation of golf and other sports in VEPs. Our international review paper outlines the environmental impacts of golf, analyses the strategic ‘green’ pressures affecting the sport, reviews the theory and practice of VEPs, and draws conclusions on this under-researched field.

Suggested Citation

  • Dino Michael Minoli & Mark Thomas Smith, 2011. "An exploration of golf and voluntary environmental programmes," Journal of Environmental Planning and Management, Taylor & Francis Journals, vol. 54(7), pages 871-889, September.
  • Handle: RePEc:taf:jenpmg:v:54:y:2011:i:7:p:871-889
    DOI: 10.1080/09640568.2010.539372
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    File URL: http://hdl.handle.net/10.1080/09640568.2010.539372
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    1. Antónia Correia & Nuno Videira & Victor Martins & Inês Alves & Catarina Ramires & Rui Subtil, 2004. "Development Scenarios of Sustainability for Golf: The Algarve Case," ERSA conference papers ersa04p620, European Regional Science Association.
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