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An exploration of golf and voluntary environmental programmes


  • Dino Michael Minoli
  • Mark Thomas Smith


Golf is a major and expanding sport, leisure and tourism activity with significant environmental impacts. The impacts of golf and other sports facilities are increasingly addressed through Voluntary Environmental Programmes (VEPs). Since the late-1980s, VEPs have gained popularity because they theoretically overcome the weaknesses of environmental legislation, improve environmental performance beyond minimum legal compliance and confer competitive advantage. Yet their effectiveness is contested and they are only partially accepted. There is very limited research on the growing participation of golf and other sports in VEPs. Our international review paper outlines the environmental impacts of golf, analyses the strategic ‘green’ pressures affecting the sport, reviews the theory and practice of VEPs, and draws conclusions on this under-researched field.

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  • Dino Michael Minoli & Mark Thomas Smith, 2011. "An exploration of golf and voluntary environmental programmes," Journal of Environmental Planning and Management, Taylor & Francis Journals, vol. 54(7), pages 871-889, September.
  • Handle: RePEc:taf:jenpmg:v:54:y:2011:i:7:p:871-889 DOI: 10.1080/09640568.2010.539372

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    References listed on IDEAS

    1. Frances Ruane & Xiaoheng Zhang, 2007. "Location Choices of the Pharmaceutical Industry in Europe after 1992," The Institute for International Integration Studies Discussion Paper Series iiisdp220, IIIS.
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    1. Mamedov, Arseny & Hudko, Hudko & Belev, Sergei & Moguchev, Nikita Sergeevich, 2016. "Comparative Analysis of the Effectiveness of Individual Instruments of State Investment Policy," Working Papers 3052, Russian Presidential Academy of National Economy and Public Administration.

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