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Liberalisation, Multinational Enterprises and Export Performance: Evidence from Indian Manufacturing

  • A. Aggarwal

This article tests two empirical hypotheses: one, MNE affiliates perform distinctly better than their local counterparts in the export markets in a globalised economy, and two, the MNE affiliates have greater comparative advantages in high-tech than in low- and medium-tech industries. Tobit estimates of a large data set of Indian manufacturing firms for the late 1990s provide relatively weak support to the first hypothesis. A disaggregated industry-group-wise analysis indicates that MNE affiliates perform no better than their local counterparts in high-tech industries. Thus, even with a higher level of integration with the global economy in the 1990s India appears to have failed in attracting efficiency-seeking FDI on a significant scale, particularly in high-tech industries. R&D and efficiency of manpower emerge as two significant determinants of international competitiveness in technology-based sectors (high- and medium-high tech sectors). Imports of raw materials enhance the export competitiveness of firms in all industry groups. Finally, large firms are found to be more export oriented, implying the need for creating large flagship companies in the country.

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Article provided by Taylor & Francis Journals in its journal Journal of Development Studies.

Volume (Year): 38 (2002)
Issue (Month): 3 ()
Pages: 119-137

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Handle: RePEc:taf:jdevst:v:38:y:2002:i:3:p:119-137
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  1. Wang, Jian-Ye & Blomstrom, Magnus, 1992. "Foreign investment and technology transfer : A simple model," European Economic Review, Elsevier, vol. 36(1), pages 137-155, January.
  2. Teece, David J, 1977. "Technology Transfer by Multinational Firms: The Resource Cost of Transferring Technological Know-how," Economic Journal, Royal Economic Society, vol. 87(346), pages 242-61, June.
  3. Kokko, Ari & Blomstrom, Magnus, 1995. "Policies to encourage inflows of technology through foreign multinationals," World Development, Elsevier, vol. 23(3), pages 459-468, March.
  4. Amemiya, Takeshi, 1973. "Regression Analysis when the Dependent Variable is Truncated Normal," Econometrica, Econometric Society, vol. 41(6), pages 997-1016, November.
  5. Pavitt, Keith, 1984. "Sectoral patterns of technical change: Towards a taxonomy and a theory," Research Policy, Elsevier, vol. 13(6), pages 343-373, December.
  6. Athukorala, Premachandra & Jayasuriya, Sisira & Oczkowski, Edward, 1995. "Multinational firms and export performance in developing countries: Some analytical issues and new empirical evidence," Journal of Development Economics, Elsevier, vol. 46(1), pages 109-122, February.
  7. Dosi, Giovanni, 1988. "Sources, Procedures, and Microeconomic Effects of Innovation," Journal of Economic Literature, American Economic Association, vol. 26(3), pages 1120-71, September.
  8. Lall, Sanjaya & Kumar, Rajiv, 1981. "Firm-level export performance in an inward-looking economy: The Indian engineering industry," World Development, Elsevier, vol. 9(5), pages 453-463, May.
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