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Does the Balanced Scorecard Add Value? Empirical Evidence on its Effect on Performance


  • Fabien De Geuser
  • Stella Mooraj
  • Daniel Oyon


Since its emergence at the beginning of the 1990s, numerous companies have adopted the Balanced Scorecard (BSC). This paper tackles two research questions: (1) whether the BSC adds value to companies and (2) if so, how does it contribute to organisational performance. In contrast to previous literature that does not separate these two questions, we rely on an established methodology (Foster and Swenson, 1997) to separate and quantify both the BSC contribution to performance and the way that the contribution is achieved, by applying a unique cause-and-effect scheme to the BSC. Our empirical results are based on survey data collected from 76 business units. They indicate first that the Balanced Scorecard has a positive impact on organisational performance. More specifically, the BSC improves the integration of the management processes and empowers people. Using the Strategy-Focused-Organisation (SFO) model (Kaplan and Norton, 2001), we empirically find that the sources of performance derived from the BSC are primarily of three types: (1) a better translation of the strategy into operational terms, (2) the fact that strategising becomes a continuous process, and (3) the greater alignment of various processes, services, competencies and units of an organisation.

Suggested Citation

  • Fabien De Geuser & Stella Mooraj & Daniel Oyon, 2009. "Does the Balanced Scorecard Add Value? Empirical Evidence on its Effect on Performance," European Accounting Review, Taylor & Francis Journals, vol. 18(1), pages 93-122.
  • Handle: RePEc:taf:euract:v:18:y:2009:i:1:p:93-122
    DOI: 10.1080/09638180802481698

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    Blog mentions

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    1. Research concept updated
      by Timur_PhD in Business performance management research for high performance organizations on 2010-05-17 20:04:10


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    3. LIN, Zhijun & YU, Zengbiao & ZHANG, Liqun, 2014. "Performance outcomes of balanced scorecard application in hospital administration in China," China Economic Review, Elsevier, vol. 30(C), pages 1-15.
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    6. Grafton, Jennifer & Lillis, Anne M. & Widener, Sally K., 2010. "The role of performance measurement and evaluation in building organizational capabilities and performance," Accounting, Organizations and Society, Elsevier, vol. 35(7), pages 689-706, October.
    7. repec:ers:journl:v:xx:y:2017:i:2a:p:496-506 is not listed on IDEAS
    8. Madsen, Dag Øivind & Stenheim, Tonny, 2014. "Balansert målstyring: En kort oversikt over forskningslitteraturen
      [The Balanced Scorecard: A brief overview of the research literature]
      ," MPRA Paper 65991, University Library of Munich, Germany.
    9. Leopold-Wildburger, Ulrike & Strohhecker, Jürgen, 2017. "Strategy map concepts in a balanced scorecard cockpit improve performanceAuthor-Name: Hu, Bo," European Journal of Operational Research, Elsevier, vol. 258(2), pages 664-676.
    10. Valenzuela, Lionel & Maturana, Sergio, 2016. "Designing a three-dimensional performance measurement system (SMD3D) for the wine industry: A Chilean example," Agricultural Systems, Elsevier, vol. 142(C), pages 112-121.
    11. Erik G. Hansen & Stefan Schaltegger, 2016. "The Sustainability Balanced Scorecard: A Systematic Review of Architectures," Journal of Business Ethics, Springer, vol. 133(2), pages 193-221, January.
    12. Jürgen Strohhecker, 2016. "Factors influencing strategy implementation decisions: an evaluation of a balanced scorecard cockpit, intelligence, and knowledge," Journal of Management Control: Zeitschrift für Planung und Unternehmenssteuerung, Springer, vol. 27(1), pages 89-119, February.

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