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Small-scale milling and the feasibility of mandatory fortification of sorghum and maize flour in Botswana


  • Tebogo B Seleka
  • José C Jackson
  • Letsogile Batsetswe
  • Pinkie G Kebakile


In Botswana, as in many developing countries, food fortification is a potential strategy for addressing the malnutrition of low income groups. This article examines the potential costs of mandatory fortification of sorghum and maize flour for firms in Botswana. The results indicate that unit average fortification costs in pula per metric ton of flour range from 183 to 271, 118 to 170 and 103 to 149 (US$1 = P6.4 in 2007), respectively, for a typical small, medium and large firm. It is argued that the imposition of mandatory fortification may be feasible for large and perhaps some medium firms. However, small and (some) medium firms, are likely to collapse and exit the industry as a result of such action. A potentially realistic and sustainable option for small firms would be to consolidate so as to increase their scale of operation and avoid absolute collapse. However, public funding may be required to support such consolidation.

Suggested Citation

  • Tebogo B Seleka & José C Jackson & Letsogile Batsetswe & Pinkie G Kebakile, 2011. "Small-scale milling and the feasibility of mandatory fortification of sorghum and maize flour in Botswana," Development Southern Africa, Taylor & Francis Journals, vol. 28(4), pages 461-476, October.
  • Handle: RePEc:taf:deveza:v:28:y:2011:i:4:p:461-476
    DOI: 10.1080/0376835X.2011.605561

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