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Long-Term Cost Effectiveness of Oral Semaglutide Versus Empagliflozin and Sitagliptin for the Treatment of Type 2 Diabetes in the Swedish Setting


  • Björn Eliasson

    (University of Gothenburg, Sahlgrenska University Hospital)

  • Åsa Ericsson

    (Novo Nordisk Scandinavia AB)

  • Adam Fridhammar

    (The Swedish Institute for Health Economics)

  • Andreas Nilsson

    (The Swedish Institute for Health Economics)

  • Sofie Persson

    (The Swedish Institute for Health Economics
    Lund University, Health Economics Unit)

  • Barrie Chubb

    (Novo Nordisk A/S)


Objective The aim of this study was to assess the cost effectiveness of oral semaglutide versus other oral glucose-lowering drugs for the management of type 2 diabetes (T2D) in Sweden. Methods The Swedish Institute for Health Economics Diabetes Cohort Model was used to assess the cost effectiveness of oral semaglutide 14 mg versus empagliflozin 25 mg and oral semaglutide 14 mg versus sitagliptin 100 mg, using data from the head-to-head PIONEER 2 and 3 trials, respectively, in which these treatments were added to metformin (± sulphonylurea). Base-case and scenario analyses were conducted. Robustness was evaluated with deterministic and probabilistic sensitivity analyses. Results In the base-case analyses, greater initial lowering of glycated haemoglobin levels with oral semaglutide versus empagliflozin and oral semaglutide versus sitagliptin, respectively, resulted in reduced incidences of micro- and macrovascular complications and was associated with lower costs of complications and indirect costs. Treatment costs were higher for oral semaglutide, resulting in higher total lifetime costs than with empagliflozin (Swedish Krona [SEK] 1,245,570 vs. 1,210,172) and sitagliptin (SEK1,405,789 vs. 1,377,381). Oral semaglutide was shown to be cost effective, with an incremental cost-effectiveness ratio (ICER) of SEK239,001 per quality-adjusted life-year (QALY) compared with empagliflozin and SEK120,848 per QALY compared with sitagliptin, from a payer perspective. ICERs were lower at SEK191,721 per QALY compared with empagliflozin and SEK95,234 per QALY compared with sitagliptin from a societal perspective. Results were similar in scenario analyses that incorporated cardiovascular effects, and also in sensitivity analyses. Conclusions In a Swedish setting, oral semaglutide was cost effective compared with empagliflozin and sitagliptin for patients with T2D inadequately controlled on oral glucose-lowering drugs. Trial Registration NCT02863328 (PIONEER 2; registered 11 August 2016) and NCT02607865 (PIONEER 3; registered 18 November 2015).

Suggested Citation

  • Björn Eliasson & Åsa Ericsson & Adam Fridhammar & Andreas Nilsson & Sofie Persson & Barrie Chubb, 2022. "Long-Term Cost Effectiveness of Oral Semaglutide Versus Empagliflozin and Sitagliptin for the Treatment of Type 2 Diabetes in the Swedish Setting," PharmacoEconomics - Open, Springer, vol. 6(3), pages 343-354, May.
  • Handle: RePEc:spr:pharmo:v:6:y:2022:i:3:d:10.1007_s41669-021-00317-z
    DOI: 10.1007/s41669-021-00317-z

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