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The determinants of pharmaceutical research and development expenditures

Author

Listed:
  • Henry Grabowski

    () (Department of Economics, Duke University, Durham, NC 27708, USA)

  • John Vernon

    () (Department of Economics, Duke University, Durham, NC 27708, USA)

Abstract

Since the late 1970s, pharmaceutical R&D has grown at a rapid rate relative to sales and other variables. In this paper, we examine the determinants of pharmaceutical R&D using a pooled data sample of 11 major drug firms over the period 1974 to 1994. We find that expected returns and cash flows are important explanatory variables of firm research intensities during this period. This is consistent with our results for an earlier sample period characterized by very different growth patterns on R&D.

Suggested Citation

  • Henry Grabowski & John Vernon, 2000. "The determinants of pharmaceutical research and development expenditures," Journal of Evolutionary Economics, Springer, vol. 10(1), pages 201-215.
  • Handle: RePEc:spr:joevec:v:10:y:2000:i:1:p:201-215
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    Citations

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    Cited by:

    1. Bakker, Gerben, 2013. "Money for nothing: How firms have financed R&D-projects since the Industrial Revolution," Research Policy, Elsevier, vol. 42(10), pages 1793-1814.
    2. Jörg Mahlich & Thomas Roediger-Schluga, 2006. "The Determinants of Pharmaceutical R&D Expenditures: Evidence from Japan," Review of Industrial Organization, Springer;The Industrial Organization Society, vol. 28(2), pages 145-164, March.
    3. Thomas A. Abbott & John A. Vernon, 2005. "The Cost of US Pharmaceutical Price Reductions: A Financial Simulation Model of R&D Decisions," NBER Working Papers 11114, National Bureau of Economic Research, Inc.
    4. Alex Coad & Rekha Rao, 2010. "Firm growth and R&D expenditure," Economics of Innovation and New Technology, Taylor & Francis Journals, vol. 19(2), pages 127-145.
    5. Hassanzadeh, Farhad & Modarres, Mohammad & Nemati, Hamid R. & Amoako-Gyampah, Kwasi, 2014. "A robust R&D project portfolio optimization model for pharmaceutical contract research organizations," International Journal of Production Economics, Elsevier, vol. 158(C), pages 18-27.
    6. repec:spr:rvmgts:v:12:y:2018:i:1:d:10.1007_s11846-016-0218-8 is not listed on IDEAS
    7. Vernon, John A. & Golec, Joseph H. & Lutter, Randall & Nardinelli, Clark, 2009. "An exploratory study of FDA new drug review times, prescription drug user fee acts, and R&D spending," The Quarterly Review of Economics and Finance, Elsevier, vol. 49(4), pages 1260-1274, November.
    8. Balconi, Margherita & Brusoni, Stefano & Orsenigo, Luigi, 2010. "In defence of the linear model: An essay," Research Policy, Elsevier, vol. 39(1), pages 1-13, February.
    9. Bastian Rake, 2017. "Determinants of pharmaceutical innovation: the role of technological opportunities revisited," Journal of Evolutionary Economics, Springer, vol. 27(4), pages 691-727, September.
    10. Yang, Chih-Hai & Tseng, Yu-Hsuan & Chen, Chiang-Ping, 2012. "Environmental regulations, induced R&D, and productivity: Evidence from Taiwan's manufacturing industries," Resource and Energy Economics, Elsevier, vol. 34(4), pages 514-532.
    11. Grabowski, Henry & Vernon, John & DiMasi, Joseph, 2002. "Returns on R&D for 1990s New Drug Introductions," Working Papers 02-21, Duke University, Department of Economics.
    12. Mueller-Langer, Frank, 2013. "Neglected infectious diseases: Are push and pull incentive mechanisms suitable for promoting drug development research?," Health Economics, Policy and Law, Cambridge University Press, vol. 8(02), pages 185-208, April.
    13. Desiderio Romero-Jordán & María Delgado-Rodríguez & Inmaculada Álvarez-Ayuso & Sonia Lucas-Santos, 2014. "Assessment of the public tools used to promote R&D investment in Spanish SMEs," Small Business Economics, Springer, vol. 43(4), pages 959-976, December.
    14. Ramesh Govindaraj & Gnanaraj Chellaraj, 2002. "The Indian Pharmaceutical Sector : Issues and Options for Health Sector Reform," World Bank Publications, The World Bank, number 15231, July.
    15. repec:ebl:ecbull:v:6:y:2008:i:36:p:1-8 is not listed on IDEAS
    16. John Vernon, 2003. "The relationship between price regulation and pharmaceutical profit margins," Applied Economics Letters, Taylor & Francis Journals, vol. 10(8), pages 467-470.
    17. William Kingston, 2004. "Nelson's Concerns About Intellectual Property," Levine's Working Paper Archive 122247000000000461, David K. Levine.
    18. repec:eee:respol:v:47:y:2018:i:5:p:854-871 is not listed on IDEAS
    19. Toole, Andrew A., 2005. "Does Public Scientific Research Complement Industry R&D Investment? The Case of NIH Supported Basic and Clinical Research and Pharmaceutical Industry R&D," ZEW Discussion Papers 05-75, ZEW - Zentrum für Europäische Wirtschaftsforschung / Center for European Economic Research.
    20. Barrenho, E & Smith, PC & Miraldo, M, 2013. "The determinants of attrition in drug development: a duration analysis," Working Papers 12204, Imperial College, London, Imperial College Business School.
    21. John A. Vernon, 2005. "Examining the link between price regulation and pharmaceutical R&D investment," Health Economics, John Wiley & Sons, Ltd., vol. 14(1), pages 1-16.
    22. Rodrigo Cerda, 2007. "Endogenous innovations in the pharmaceutical industry," Journal of Evolutionary Economics, Springer, vol. 17(4), pages 473-515, August.
    23. Rutger P. Daems PhD & Edith L. Maes DBA, 2013. "Pharmaceutical Portfolio Management: Global Disease Burden and Corporate Performance Metrics," Working Papers 2013/07, Maastricht School of Management.
    24. John Vernon & Joseph Golec & J. Stevens, 2010. "Comparative Effectiveness Regulations and Pharmaceutical Innovation," PharmacoEconomics, Springer, vol. 28(10), pages 877-887, October.
    25. Patricia M. Danzon & Eric L. Keuffel, 2014. "Regulation of the Pharmaceutical-Biotechnology Industry," NBER Chapters,in: Economic Regulation and Its Reform: What Have We Learned?, pages 407-484 National Bureau of Economic Research, Inc.

    More about this item

    Keywords

    Pharmaceuticals - R&D - Innovation - Cash flow - Expected returns;

    JEL classification:

    • L65 - Industrial Organization - - Industry Studies: Manufacturing - - - Chemicals; Rubber; Drugs; Biotechnology; Plastics
    • O31 - Economic Development, Innovation, Technological Change, and Growth - - Innovation; Research and Development; Technological Change; Intellectual Property Rights - - - Innovation and Invention: Processes and Incentives
    • O33 - Economic Development, Innovation, Technological Change, and Growth - - Innovation; Research and Development; Technological Change; Intellectual Property Rights - - - Technological Change: Choices and Consequences; Diffusion Processes

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