Density and current response functions in strongly disordered electron systems: diffusion, electrical conductivity and Einstein relation
We study noninteracting quantum charged particles (electron gas) subject to a strong random potential and perturbed by a weak classical electromagnetic field. We examine consequences of gauge invariance and charge conservation in the space of Bloch waves. We use two specific forms of the Ward identity between the one- and two-particle averaged Green functions to establish exact relations between the density and current response functions. In particular, we find precise conditions under which we can extract the current-current from the density-density correlation functions and vice versa. We use these results to prove a formula relating the density response and the electrical conductivity in strongly disordered systems. We introduce quantum diffusion as a response function that reduces to the diffusion constant in the static limit. We then derive Fick’s law, a quantum version of the Einstein relation and prove the existence of the diffusion pole in the quasistatic limit of the zero-temperature electron-hole correlation function. We show that the electrical conductivity controls the long-range spatial fluctuations of the electron-hole correlation function only in the static limit. Copyright Springer-Verlag Berlin/Heidelberg 2003
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Volume (Year): 35 (2003)
Issue (Month): 1 (September)
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