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Business Climate as a Leading Indicator? An Empirical Investigation for West Germany from 1978 to 1990


  • Scholer, Klaus


For 25 years now, the leading indicator "Business Climate" of the Ifo Institute has been applied in the Federal Republic of Germany. The intent of this note is to provide answers to two questions by means of econometric methods. The first question is: Is the business climate really a leading indicator? The second question is: How much time is the indicator ahead? For verification and in order to respond to both questions, the Granger causality test is used in the version of Hsiao.

Suggested Citation

  • Scholer, Klaus, 1994. "Business Climate as a Leading Indicator? An Empirical Investigation for West Germany from 1978 to 1990," Empirical Economics, Springer, vol. 19(1), pages 165-169.
  • Handle: RePEc:spr:empeco:v:19:y:1994:i:1:p:165-69

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