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EQ-5D-5L Population Norms for Italy


  • Michela Meregaglia

    (SDA Bocconi School of Management)

  • Francesco Malandrini

    (SDA Bocconi School of Management)

  • Aureliano Paolo Finch

    (EuroQol Research Foundation
    Health Values Research and Consultancy)

  • Oriana Ciani

    (SDA Bocconi School of Management)

  • Claudio Jommi

    (SDA Bocconi School of Management)


Objectives This study aimed to provide normative data obtained in response to the EQ-5D-5L questionnaire in Italy and compare this with data from other countries. Methods A sample of the Italian adult population (aged ≥ 18 years) was recruited and interviewed online using videoconferencing software (Zoom) between November 2020 and February 2021. The distribution of answers was estimated as per the descriptive system of the EQ-5D-5L, and descriptive statistics were calculated for the EQ VAS score and EQ-5D-5L index value in the whole sample and relevant subgroups. An ordinary least square (OLS) regression was performed to evaluate the impact of sociodemographic variables on EQ-5D-5L results. Lastly, a comparison was made with EQ-5D-5L population norms of other countries. Data analysis was performed using Microsoft Excel and Stata 13. Results Overall, 1182 people representative of the Italian population (2020) in terms of sex and geographical area responded to the survey. Of the 3125 potential EQ-5D-5L health states, only 106 (3.4%) were selected, and the ‘11111’ and ‘11112’ states were chosen by half of the participants. In terms of EQ-5D-5L dimensions, the frequency of any problems (from slight to extreme) associated with anxiety and depression was high among the very young (18–24 years, 56.0%) and in women of all ages (49.7%). The mean index value (± standard deviation [SD]) was 0.93 (± 0.11) for the entire sample and gradually decreased with age, moving from 0.95 (± 0.06) in the youngest group (18–24 years) to 0.91 (± 0.13) in the oldest age group (≥ 75 years). Similarly, the mean EQ VAS score (± SD) was 81.8 (± 13.5), and decreased from 87.0 (± 8.9) in the 18–24 years age group to 75.1 (± 16.4) among participants > 75 years of age. The existence of self-reported chronic conditions (e.g., cardiovascular disease), female sex, and social assistance recipiency were negatively associated with the EQ-5D index value, while the EQ VAS score was significantly lower in people with chronic conditions and aged > 55 years. Conversely, higher income levels had a positive impact on both the EQ-5D index value and the EQ VAS score. Lastly, both the EQ-5D index value and EQ VAS score in Italy were, on average, higher than in most European countries. Conclusions EQ-5D-5L population norms provide useful insights into the health status of the Italian population and can be used as a reference for other surveys using the same instrument.

Suggested Citation

  • Michela Meregaglia & Francesco Malandrini & Aureliano Paolo Finch & Oriana Ciani & Claudio Jommi, 2023. "EQ-5D-5L Population Norms for Italy," Applied Health Economics and Health Policy, Springer, vol. 21(2), pages 289-303, March.
  • Handle: RePEc:spr:aphecp:v:21:y:2023:i:2:d:10.1007_s40258-022-00772-7
    DOI: 10.1007/s40258-022-00772-7

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