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La producción de energía eléctrica a partir de la biomasa forestal primaria: análisis del caso gallego

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    El Gobierno gallego ha desarrollado en los últimos años una normativa específica para el fomento de producción de energía eléctrica mediante el aprovechamiento de la biomasa forestal primaria. La valorización energética de la biomasa forestal se presenta, por parte del regulador, como una interesante iniciativa con la que avanzar en la reducción de las emisiones de CO2 y SO2, con-tribuir a la limpieza del monte, servir como herramienta en la prevención de los incendios forestales, mejorar la autosuficiencia energética, dinamizar el rural e impulsar al sector maderero. Por otra par-te, desde diversas instituciones y agentes se están mostrando posicionamientos críticos con el modelo de producción eléctrica diseñado por la Xunta de Galicia e incluso con los puntos de partida de la producción de electricidad a partir de la biomasa. Este artículo analiza el marco regulador de la producción de energía eléctrica a partir de la valorización energética de la biomasa forestal primaria, centrándose principalmente en la normativa autonómica. El texto estudia el proceso de selección y el grado de desarrollo de las instalaciones previstas más allá del marco retributivo de las plantas de biomasa que emplean como combustible la biomasa forestal primaria. Finalmente, se introducen elementos para el debate sobre las posibles consecuencias que tendría para el monte gallego y para el mundo rural la implantación a gran escala de este modelo. Over the past few years the Galician Government has developed specific regulations for power production by supporting the use of primary forest biomass. The exploitation of forest bio-mass energy is presented by the regulator as an interesting initiative to furthering CO2 and SO2 emission reduction, to contribute to the forest lot clean-up, to become tool for preventing forest fires, to improve energy self-sufficiency, to boost rural society and to promote timber industry. However, key actors and regional stakeholders are often critical of the electric production model designed by the regional government as well as of the use of biomass to produce electricity. This article analyzes the regulatory framework of electricity production by valorising the energy recovery of primary forest biomass, focusing mainly on the regional regulation. In doing so, the selection process and the degree of development of the biomass power stations are studied beyond the remuneration framework of the biomass facilities that use primary forest biomass as a fuel. Finally, different elements are introduced in order to debate the possible consequences of implementing this model to a large-scale on the Galician mountain and countryside.

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    Article provided by University of Santiago de Compostela. Faculty of Economics and Business. in its journal Revista Galega de Economía.

    Volume (Year): 23 (2014)
    Issue (Month): 2 ()
    Pages: 91-112

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    Handle: RePEc:sdo:regaec:v:23:y:2014:i:2_5
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