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De cartoneros a recicladores urbanos. El rol de las políticas locales en mejorar la sustentabilidad de los recolectores de base

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  • Navarrete-Hernández , Pablo

    () (London School of Economics and Political Sciences)

Abstract

Las políticas locales enfocadas a la economía informal, en general, y a los recolectores, en particular, están basadas en cuatro aproximaciones: (1) Dualista, de represión en contra de la actividad, producto de la preservación de la pobreza y de la reducción del crecimiento económico; (2) Estructuralista, enfocadas en reforzar las organizaciones y mejorar la negociación de precios; (3) Neoliberal, dirigida a promover la actividad a través de la legalización y el libre mercado, y (4) Co-producción, que considera un fuerte apoyo de las políticas locales para mejorar la productividad de la actividad. Son escasos los estudios -cualitativos y/o cuantitativos- que comparen estas políticas urbanas. Este estudio evalúa la veracidad de la caracterización de la economía informal y el impacto de las políticas locales que estas teorías recomiendan aplicar. Los resultados obtenidos del estudio muestran una asociación positiva entre el apoyo local y el incremento de la sostenibilidad de los recicladores de base en cuanto a su crecimiento económico, equidad social, protección medioambiental y reducción de las externalidades negativas. Policies towards the urban economy, in general, and towards scavengers, in particular, are based in four approaches: (1) dualists propose repressive policies against scavengers’ activities as they look at them as a means of poverty preservation and slowing of economic growth; (2) structuralists address weak sup- porting policies, reinforcing scavengers association and better negotiation power to avoid capitalist exploitation; (3) neoliberals promote scavenging activities through legalization and free-markets without government intervention; and, (4) co-production arrangements propose a strong local support as a means to enhance scavengers’ productivity. Qualitative-quantitative research on the impact of different policy approaches on scavengers’ sustainable performance is scarce. This paper tries to fill this gap in the literature evaluating the veracity of competing theoretical characterizations and policy approaches. The empirical results suggest a positive association between levels of local government support and scavengers’ sustainable performance on economic growth, social equity, environmental protection and reduction of negative externalities of the activity.

Suggested Citation

  • Navarrete-Hernández , Pablo, 2016. "De cartoneros a recicladores urbanos. El rol de las políticas locales en mejorar la sustentabilidad de los recolectores de base," INVESTIGACIONES REGIONALES - Journal of REGIONAL RESEARCH, Asociación Española de Ciencia Regional, issue 35, pages 83-106.
  • Handle: RePEc:ris:invreg:0318
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    More about this item

    Keywords

    desarrollo local; economía informal; reciclaje local; recicladores;

    JEL classification:

    • E26 - Macroeconomics and Monetary Economics - - Consumption, Saving, Production, Employment, and Investment - - - Informal Economy; Underground Economy
    • J48 - Labor and Demographic Economics - - Particular Labor Markets - - - Particular Labor Markets; Public Policy
    • O17 - Economic Development, Innovation, Technological Change, and Growth - - Economic Development - - - Formal and Informal Sectors; Shadow Economy; Institutional Arrangements
    • Q01 - Agricultural and Natural Resource Economics; Environmental and Ecological Economics - - General - - - Sustainable Development

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