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Distritos industriales, innovación tecnológica y efecto I-distrito: ¿Una cuestión de volumen o de valor?

Author

Listed:
  • Galletto, Vittorio

    () (Universitat Autònoma de Barcelona. Institut d’Estudis Regionals i Metropolitans de Barcelona)

  • Boix Domènech , Rafael

    () (Universitat de València)

Abstract

El efecto I-distrito establece la existencia de eficiencia dinámica en los distritos industriales marshallianos en la forma de un diferencial positivo de innovaciones respecto al promedio de la economía. La hipótesis ha sido validada empíricamente para el caso de la innovación tecnológica, mediante el uso de indicadores de patentes. Las investigaciones empíricas han asumido que todos los tipos de figuras patentables (modelos de innovación, patentes nacionales, EPO, WIPO) tienen el mismo peso con independencia de su valor efectivo o esperado de mercado, lo que puede ser discutible dadas las diferencias en cobertura, protección y coste de cada figura. En este artículo cuestionamos la existencia del efecto I-distrito cuando se le asigna a cada patente su valor potencial esperado. Como predice la tesis del efecto I-distrito, el efecto diferencial sobre la media se mantiene incluso en presencia de la ponderación, lo que descarta que el distrito industrial se especialice solamente en patentes de baja calidad. Sin embargo, al ponderar las innovaciones, la primacía del distrito industrial como sistema productivo local más innovador puede verse superada por otros sistemas productivos locales. The I-district effect establishes the existence of dynamic efficiency in Marshallian industrial districts in the form of a positive innovative differential comparing to the average of the economy. The hypothesis has been empirically validated for the case of technological innovation using patent indicators. Empirical research has assumed that all types of patentable figures (models of innovation, national patents, EPO, WIPO) have the same weight regardless of its actual or expected market value, which may be questionable given the differences in coverage, protection and cost of each figure. In this article we question the existence of the I-district effect when each patent is weighted by its expected potential value. As the I-district effect theory predicts, the relative differential effect is maintained even in the presence of the weighting, rejecting that the industrial district specializes only in low quality patents. However, in this case, the primacy of industrial district as the most innovative local production system can be outpaced by other local production systems.

Suggested Citation

  • Galletto, Vittorio & Boix Domènech , Rafael, 2014. "Distritos industriales, innovación tecnológica y efecto I-distrito: ¿Una cuestión de volumen o de valor?," INVESTIGACIONES REGIONALES - Journal of REGIONAL RESEARCH, Asociación Española de Ciencia Regional, issue 30, pages 27-51.
  • Handle: RePEc:ris:invreg:0272
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    Keywords

    distritos industriales; efecto I-distrito; innovación tecnológica; patentes;

    JEL classification:

    • O14 - Economic Development, Innovation, Technological Change, and Growth - - Economic Development - - - Industrialization; Manufacturing and Service Industries; Choice of Technology
    • O31 - Economic Development, Innovation, Technological Change, and Growth - - Innovation; Research and Development; Technological Change; Intellectual Property Rights - - - Innovation and Invention: Processes and Incentives
    • R12 - Urban, Rural, Regional, Real Estate, and Transportation Economics - - General Regional Economics - - - Size and Spatial Distributions of Regional Economic Activity; Interregional Trade (economic geography)

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