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Metlzer’s Paradox and the Optimum Tariff in a Monetary Economy


  • Palivos, Theodore

    () (Tilburg University & Louisiana State University)

  • K. Yip, Chong

    (Chinese University of Hong Kong)


We augment the standard two country, two-commodity and two-factor trade model by allowing for money to exist as an additional asset. We find that it is possi - ble for an increase in the domestic tariff to worsen the terms of trade if the importable sector is severely distorted by the existence of money. Moreover, the Metzler condition is no longer both necessary and sufficient to rule out the Metzler paradox. Finally, we show that the conventional formula for the optimum tariff, derived in barter trade models, has a downward (upward) bias if money is more (less) efficacious in the importable sector. “In the real world there is no simple dividing line between trade and monetary issues.” Krugman and Obstfeld [1994], p. 8.

Suggested Citation

  • Palivos, Theodore & K. Yip, Chong, 1998. "Metlzer’s Paradox and the Optimum Tariff in a Monetary Economy," Journal of Economic Integration, Center for Economic Integration, Sejong University, vol. 13, pages 216-231.
  • Handle: RePEc:ris:integr:0072

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    References listed on IDEAS

    1. Elhanan Helpman, 1995. "Politics and Trade Policy," NBER Working Papers 5309, National Bureau of Economic Research, Inc.
    2. Grossman, Gene M & Helpman, Elhanan, 1994. "Protection for Sale," American Economic Review, American Economic Association, vol. 84(4), pages 833-850, September.
    3. Schweinberger, Albert G & Vosgerau, Hans J, 1997. "Foreign Factor Ownership and Optimal Tariffs," Review of International Economics, Wiley Blackwell, vol. 5(1), pages 1-19, February.
    4. Hillman, Arye L, 1982. "Declining Industries and Political-Support Protectionist Motives," American Economic Review, American Economic Association, vol. 72(5), pages 1180-1187, December.
    5. Horstmann, Ignatius J. & Markusen, James R., 1992. "Endogenous market structures in international trade (natura facit saltum)," Journal of International Economics, Elsevier, vol. 32(1-2), pages 109-129, February.
    6. Ellingsen, Tore & Warneryd, Karl, 1999. "Foreign Direct Investment and the Political Economy of Protection," International Economic Review, Department of Economics, University of Pennsylvania and Osaka University Institute of Social and Economic Research Association, vol. 40(2), pages 357-379, May.
    7. Hillman, Arye L & Ursprung, Heinrich W, 1993. "Multinational Firms, Political Competition, and International Trade Policy," International Economic Review, Department of Economics, University of Pennsylvania and Osaka University Institute of Social and Economic Research Association, vol. 34(2), pages 347-363, May.
    8. Hillman, Arye L. & Ursprung, Heinrich W., 1996. "The political economy of trade liberalization in the transition," European Economic Review, Elsevier, vol. 40(3-5), pages 783-794, April.
    9. Grether, Jean-Marie & de Melo, Jaime & Olarreaga, Marcelo, 2001. "Who determines Mexican trade policy?," Journal of Development Economics, Elsevier, vol. 64(2), pages 343-370, April.
    10. Konishi, Hideo & Saggi, Kamal & Weber, Shlomo, 1999. "Endogenous trade policy under foreign direct investment," Journal of International Economics, Elsevier, vol. 49(2), pages 289-308, December.
    11. Marcelo Olarreaga, 1998. "Tariff Reductions under Foreign Factor Ownership," Canadian Journal of Economics, Canadian Economics Association, vol. 31(4), pages 830-836, November.
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    More about this item


    Metlzer’s Paradox; the Optimum Tariff;

    JEL classification:

    • E40 - Macroeconomics and Monetary Economics - - Money and Interest Rates - - - General
    • F11 - International Economics - - Trade - - - Neoclassical Models of Trade


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