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Les plantes génétiquement modifiées dans les PVD : entre discours et réalité

  • Thierry Raffin
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    [fre] Depuis le milieu des années 1990, la question des plantes génétiquement modifiées (PGM) taraude la compétition économique entre les États-Unis et l’Europe. L’Afrique, continent emblématique des problématiques du développement et du problème récurrent de la faim dans le monde, apparaît comme le terrain de cette opposition. Les promoteurs des OGM . tentent de s’appuyer sur ces problèmes pour le développement des biotechnologies végétales; les opposants dénoncent cette prétention des PGM à régler les questions de la faim et du développement dans les PVD. Dans cette compétition mondiale, la mise en place dans ces pays, à l’instigation des États-Unis, de réseaux et de relais appuyés sur les instituts de recherche nationaux, plaidant et oeuvrant pour une «nouvelle révolution verte génétique», ne semble pas véritablement permettre une appropriation de ces nouvelles biotechnologies par les PVD. Les conditions culturales et les savoirs sociotechniques traditionnels restent trop souvent en dehors de l’équation biotechnologique. Cela n’est pas sans produire des tensions, des inquiétudes, des résistances dans les milieux des petits producteurs agricoles. [eng] Since the middle of the Nineties, the question of Genetically Modified Plants has tapped on the economic competition between the United States and Europe. Africa, emblematic continent for the problematics of development and the recurrent problem of hunger in the world, seems to be the ground of this opposition. GMO promoters base themselves on the aforesaid problems to justify the development of vegetable biotechnologies; their opponents denounce the claim regarding the ability of GMPs to regulate the problems of hunger and development in the developing countries. In this global competition, the establishment of networks and relays, under United States’ instigation, to support national institutes of research and to plead and work for a “new genetic green revolution”, in these countries, does really not seem to enable the mastery of these new biotechnologies by the developing countries. Farming conditions and traditional knowledge too often remain apart from the biotechnological equation. This state of affairs is not without causing tensions, concerns and resistances in the milieu of small scale farmers.

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    Article provided by Programme National Persée in its journal Tiers-Monde.

    Volume (Year): 47 (2006)
    Issue (Month): 188 ()
    Pages: 705-720

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    Handle: RePEc:prs:rtiers:tiers_1293-8882_2006_num_47_188_6458
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