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Réforme du droit social et efficacité économique

Author

Listed:
  • Jacques Barthélémy
  • Gilbert Cette

Abstract

[fre] Les principaux objectifs d'une réforme du droit social sont d'encourager la négociation collective, de réduire la complexité du droit du travail, de ne pas affaiblir sa fonction protectrice, de maintenir les hétérogénéités quand elles répondent à des besoins et des attentes, de réduire les sources d'inégalités que le droit social peut créer et de limiter les nombreux effets de seuils. Les principaux écueils à éviter sont ceux du développement d'un arsenal dirigiste, d'une confiance exagérée dans le contrat et d'une non prise en compte des attentes des personnes concernées mais aussi des contraintes juridiques incontournables, tant nationales qu'internationales. L'orientation essentielle d'une réforme ambitieuse du droit social respectant ces objectifs et évitant ces écueils passe par un développement du droit dérogatoire. Ce développement permettrait la contraction du droit réglementaire et, simultanément, le développement du droit conventionnel, pour aboutir à une flexibilité négociée, gérée par les partenaires sociaux eux-mêmes. Pour que cette promotion du droit conventionnel soit effective, il faut accorder aux partenaires sociaux des rentes associées à la négociation : flexibilités juridiques, financières... les incitant à construire du droit contractuel. Des illustrations concrètes d'une telle réforme sont fournies dans cinq domaines : la durée du travail, le salaire minimum, les garanties sociales face aux précarités, l'emploi précaire et les coûts et incertitudes de la judiciarisation des licenciements. [eng] Social Law Reform and Economie Efficiency . The main aims of a social law reform are to promote collective bargaining, to reduce the complexity of labour law, to preserve its protective function, to maintain the heterogeneities when they match with needs and expectations, to reduce the sources of inequalities that the social law could create and to limit its numerous threshold effects. The main difficulties are to avoid a growing interventionist armoury, an exacerbated confidence in contracts and the lack of consideration for concerned people's expectations, but also for the legal constraints that cannot be ignored, which are national and international. The key orientation of an ambitious social law reform observing these aims and avoiding these difficulties goes through the expansion of derogating law. This expansion will allow the reduction of regulations and, simultaneously, the expansion of contractual provisions, to lead to a bargained flexibility, managed by the social partners themselves. In order to make this promotion of contractual provisions effective, social partners must be given rents associated to bargaining such as legal or financial flexibilities, encouraging them to build contractual law. Actual demonstrations of such a reform are provided in five fields: hours of work, minimum wage, social securities against precariousness, job insecurity and costs and uncertainties corresponding to the judicial treatment of dismissals.

Suggested Citation

  • Jacques Barthélémy & Gilbert Cette, 2008. "Réforme du droit social et efficacité économique," Revue Française d'Économie, Programme National Persée, vol. 23(2), pages 57-88.
  • Handle: RePEc:prs:rfreco:rfeco_0769-0479_2008_num_23_2_1666
    Note: DOI:10.3406/rfeco.2008.1666
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