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L'uniformité versus la différenciation des normes dans les accords environnementaux internationaux

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  • Basak Bayramoglu

Abstract

[fre] Les accords environnementaux internationaux sont caractérisés par des objectifs de dépollution soit uniformes soit différenciés pour des pays. L'efficacité économique requiert, a priori, la mise en place des règles de réduction différenciées selon les pays. Or, on observe que la plupart des accords environnementaux signés actuellement au niveau international sont régis par des règles uniformes de réduction des émissions. Des arguments théoriques, comme l'existence du commerce international entre pays ou la difficulté d'aboutir à un accord, peuvent expliquer l'usage de ces règles. L'objectif de ce travail est de préciser les contours factuels et théoriques de l'utilisation fréquente des règles uniformes dans ces accords. Après une description de la nature des accords environnementaux internationaux, nous analysons les règles de réduction des émissions actuellement utilisées dans les négociations internationales pour l'environnement. Cette analyse est mise en perspective avec l'étude des normes pour la régulation des problèmes de pollution domestique pour laquelle le clivage entre les normes uniformes et les normes différenciées existe également. La dernière section fournit une revue de la littérature théorique sur l'évaluation de l'efficacité économique et environnementale des normes uniformes dans les accords environnementaux internationaux. [eng] Uniformity versus Differentiation of Emission Reduction Targets in International Environmental Agreements . International environmental agreements are characterized either by uniform or differentiated emission reduction targets for countries. Cost-efficiency requires, in general, the setting of differentiated emission reduction targets for heteregenous countries. We observe, however, a frequent use of uniform emission reduction targets in international environmental agreements. One can mention several theoretical arguments to justify the use of these rules, such as the existence of international trade or the difficulty to reach an agreement. The aim of this paper is to present the main theoretical and factual arguments in order to explain the frequent use of uniform standards in these agreements. First, we provide a description of the nature of international environmental agreements. Then, we analyze the type of emission reduction targets currently used in international negotiations on the environment. This analysis is put in perspective with the study of the uniform standards implemented for the regulation of domestic pollution problems. Finally, we provide a survey of the theoretical literature on the economic and environmental efficiency of uniform standards used in the international environmental agreements.

Suggested Citation

  • Basak Bayramoglu, 2007. "L'uniformité versus la différenciation des normes dans les accords environnementaux internationaux," Revue Française d'Économie, Programme National Persée, vol. 22(2), pages 103-128.
  • Handle: RePEc:prs:rfreco:rfeco_0769-0479_2007_num_22_2_1650
    Note: DOI:10.3406/rfeco.2007.1650
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