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La libéralisation des marchés agricoles, une chance pour les pays en développement ?

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  • Jean-Christophe Bureau
  • Estelle Gozlan
  • Sébastien Jean

Abstract

[fre] Jean-Christophe Bureau Estelle Gozlan Sébastien Jean La libéralisation des marchés agricoles, une chance pour les pays en développement ? L'agriculture étant un avantage comparatif pour la plupart des pays en développement, la libéralisation du commerce de ses produits, source de nouveaux débouchés et d'une hausse des prix mondiaux, peut être pour eux source de bénéfices. Un examen circonstancié montre pourtant que l'ampleur de ces gains a souvent été surestimée dans le passé. Surtout, l'impact d'une libéralisation apparaît très contrasté entre pays. Les pays intermédiaires, notamment en Asie et en Amérique latine, semblent susceptibles de tirer pleinement profit d'une libéralisation. Des pays parmi les plus pauvres, peu à même de conquérir de nouveaux marchés et dont le commerce extérieur est largement structuré autour des préférences commerciales, risquent d'apparaître comme les laissés-pour-compte d'un éventuel accord, si des mesures spécifiques ne sont pas adoptées à leur bénéfice. [eng] Is Agricultural Liberalisation a Chance for Developing Countries? To the extent that agriculture is a comparative advantage for most developing countries, liberalising agricultural trade might be beneficial for them, through new markets and heightened world prices. However, a thorough examination shows that the magnitude of these gains has often been overstated in the past. Liberalisation would entail strongly differentiated impacts across countries. Intermediate countries, like in Asia and in Latin America, are in a position to reap full benefit from liberalisation. Poorest countries, in contrast, are unlikely to reach new markets, and their foreign trade is largely shaped by trade preferences. As a consequence, they might fall short of reaping any gain from a possible agreement, unless specific measures are taken to their benefit.

Suggested Citation

  • Jean-Christophe Bureau & Estelle Gozlan & Sébastien Jean, 2005. "La libéralisation des marchés agricoles, une chance pour les pays en développement ?," Revue Française d'Économie, Programme National Persée, vol. 20(1), pages 109-145.
  • Handle: RePEc:prs:rfreco:rfeco_0769-0479_2005_num_20_1_1566
    Note: DOI:10.3406/rfeco.2005.1566
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