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Les effets d'une réduction du temps de travail sur l'emploi et le chômage

Listed author(s):
  • Gilbert Cette

[fre] Pour être « réussie », c'est à dire financée de façon pérenne de sorte qu'elle soit durablement créatrice d'emplois, une réduction du temps de travail ne doit pas dégrader la rentabilité de l'entreprise. Sur le long terme, les conditions de financement de la réduction du temps de travail ont été, dans tous les pays industrialisés, compatibles ex post avec une croissance prolongée. Sur une période récente certaines expériences nationales comme celles des Pays-Bas et de multiples réalisations d'entreprises montrent que des financements réussis de processus de réduction du temps de travail sont fréquents. Pour autant, aucune expérience micro ou macro-économique n'est transposable telle quelle d'une entreprise ou d'un pays à un autre. Les effets sur l'emploi de l'expérience française actuelle de réduction du temps de travail dépendront du financement de cette dernière. Si ce financement est réussi et respecte diverses contraintes, de nombreux emplois pérennes pourraient être créés, sans dégrader le solde des finances publiques et la situation financière des entreprises. Le bien- être des ménages en serait modifié, les salariés gagnant du temps libre mais perdant un peu de pouvoir d'achat (par rapport à une situation sans réduction du temps de travail), et de nombreux chômeurs gagnant un emploi... Néanmoins la réduc- tion du temps de travail ne peut prétendre constituer la solution au chômage massif que connaît la France. [eng] To be successful, that is to be well financed in the long run and to create jobs durably, a reduction of working time must not decrease the firms competitiveness. In the long run, the conditions of financing the reduction of working time have always been compatible with sustained growth in all industrialised countries. In recent period, both certain national experiences like in the Netherlands, and many firms realisations show that successful financing of the process of reducing working time are numerous. However, no micro or macro-economic experience can be directly transposed from one firm or country to another. The effects on employment of the actual French experience in reducing working time will depend on its financing. If the financing is successful and respects certain constraints, considerable sustained employment could be created without damaging the public financial balance and the financial situation of firms. The well-being of households would change. The employees would gain leisure time but would lose some purchasing power (compared to a situation without a reduction of working time) and many job-seekers would get a job... Nevertheless, a reduction of working time cannot be the solution to French massive unemployment.

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Article provided by Programme National Persée in its journal Revue française d'économie.

Volume (Year): 13 (1998)
Issue (Month): 3 ()
Pages: 127-149

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Handle: RePEc:prs:rfreco:rfeco_0769-0479_1998_num_13_3_1063
Note: DOI:10.3406/rfeco.1998.1063
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