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Les réformes des systèmes de protection sociale : d'un modèle à l'autre

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  • Arnaud Lechevalier
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    [eng] The main theoretical discussions about the reforms of Welfare State can be understood in view of the several conceptions of the insurance function which seems appropriate to the social security programs. In this view, this paper first investigate two models : the (wages-) insurance model and the tax-transfer model. This two models have distinct basic justifications and aims. Therefore their institutional organisations, their financial funding, as their claims of provision are in each case specific. Some of the major grounds which call reforms in favour to the one or to the other model, with regard to the efficiency and the fairness of the resources allocation, are secondly explored. Finally, a larger and renewed approach of the insurance function what is desirable to assign to the social security programs leads to recommend reforms, which rather follow the tax-transfer model. [fre] Les enjeux théoriques des débats sur les réformes des systèmes de protection sociale peuvent être compris à partir des conceptions concurrentes de la fonction d'assurance dévolue aux systèmes de protection sociale. Dans cette optique, cet article oppose d'abord deux modèles, entre lesquels les assurances sociales réalisent un compromis : le modèle d'assurance du revenu salarial et le modèle de transferts sociaux par l'impôt. Ces deux modèles ont des fondements et des objectifs contrastés. Leur organisation institutionnelle, leur mode de financement, le droit des prestations qui les caractérise, diffèrent en conséquence. Les principaux arguments, tant en termes d'efficacité que d'équité de l'allocation des ressources, qui plai- dent en faveur de réformes conformes à l'un ou l'autre modèle sont ensuite présentés et évalués. Au terme de cette analyse, une conception renouvelée et élargie de la fonction d'assurance à assigner aux systèmes de protection sociale conduit le plus souvent à préconiser des réformes en direction du modèle de transferts sociaux par l'impôt.

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    Article provided by Programme National Persée in its journal Revue française d'économie.

    Volume (Year): 12 (1997)
    Issue (Month): 2 ()
    Pages: 97-132

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    Handle: RePEc:prs:rfreco:rfeco_0769-0479_1997_num_12_2_1021
    Note: DOI:10.3406/rfeco.1997.1021
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