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Les réformes des systèmes de protection sociale : d'un modèle à l'autre

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  • Arnaud Lechevalier

Abstract

[eng] The main theoretical discussions about the reforms of Welfare State can be understood in view of the several conceptions of the insurance function which seems appropriate to the social security programs. In this view, this paper first investigate two models : the (wages-) insurance model and the tax-transfer model. This two models have distinct basic justifications and aims. Therefore their institutional organisations, their financial funding, as their claims of provision are in each case specific. Some of the major grounds which call reforms in favour to the one or to the other model, with regard to the efficiency and the fairness of the resources allocation, are secondly explored. Finally, a larger and renewed approach of the insurance function what is desirable to assign to the social security programs leads to recommend reforms, which rather follow the tax-transfer model. [fre] Les enjeux théoriques des débats sur les réformes des systèmes de protection sociale peuvent être compris à partir des conceptions concurrentes de la fonction d'assurance dévolue aux systèmes de protection sociale. Dans cette optique, cet article oppose d'abord deux modèles, entre lesquels les assurances sociales réalisent un compromis : le modèle d'assurance du revenu salarial et le modèle de transferts sociaux par l'impôt. Ces deux modèles ont des fondements et des objectifs contrastés. Leur organisation institutionnelle, leur mode de financement, le droit des prestations qui les caractérise, diffèrent en conséquence. Les principaux arguments, tant en termes d'efficacité que d'équité de l'allocation des ressources, qui plai- dent en faveur de réformes conformes à l'un ou l'autre modèle sont ensuite présentés et évalués. Au terme de cette analyse, une conception renouvelée et élargie de la fonction d'assurance à assigner aux systèmes de protection sociale conduit le plus souvent à préconiser des réformes en direction du modèle de transferts sociaux par l'impôt.

Suggested Citation

  • Arnaud Lechevalier, 1997. "Les réformes des systèmes de protection sociale : d'un modèle à l'autre," Revue Française d'Économie, Programme National Persée, vol. 12(2), pages 97-132.
  • Handle: RePEc:prs:rfreco:rfeco_0769-0479_1997_num_12_2_1021 Note: DOI:10.3406/rfeco.1997.1021
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    References listed on IDEAS

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    1. Poirine, Bernard, 1994. "Rent, emigration and unemployment in small islands: The MIRAB model and the French overseas departments and territories," World Development, Elsevier, vol. 22(12), pages 1997-2009, December.
    2. Bernard Poirine, 1993. "Le développement par la rente dans les petites économies insulaires," Revue Économique, Programme National Persée, vol. 44(6), pages 1169-1199.
    3. Alain Buzelay, 1994. "L'union fiscale et douanière des Douze : quels enseignements pour l'intégration régionale en Afrique centrale ?," Revue Tiers Monde, Programme National Persée, vol. 35(140), pages 875-890.
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    1. Arnaud Lechevalier, 1999. "La réforme des retraites publiques en Allemagne [Quelques enseignements des débats sur le modèle assurance du revenu salarial ]," Revue de l'OFCE, Programme National Persée, vol. 68(1), pages 83-125.

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