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Politiques d'environnement, enjeux et compétitivité et règles du commerce international : un tour d'horizon

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  • Christel Ayasamy

Abstract

[fre] Cet article se situe dans le cadre général d'analyse des interactions possibles entre politiques d'environnement et compétitivité internationale. A partir de plusieurs cas empiriques, sont étudiées les conséquences possibles sur la compétitivité internationale des possibilités de manipulation des accords de libre-échange. Il est montré que sous certaines conditions, un pays peut pratiquer des politiques de dumping écologique, ou de surenchère écologique, tout en respectant les règles du commerce international. L'impact des politiques d'environnement sur la compétitivité internationale est alors différencié en fonction de l'objet de la politique suivie, selon que celle-ci porte sur les produits, ou sur les procédés de production. Est abordée en particulier la possibilité pour un pays d'instaurer des barrières à l'entrée de produits importés, en renforçant ces normes d'environnement sur produits. [eng] This paper analyses the possible interactions between politics of the environment and international competitiveness. The implications on international competitiveness resulting from the manipulation of free-trade agreements are considered, with reference to several empirical cases. It is pointed out that even when countries follow the basic principles of international trade regulations, there is still a possibility for strategic environmental actions. The impacts of such actions on international competitiveness is differentiated according to whether the environmental politics concern products standards or process and production methods standards. The possibility for a country to establish trade barriers on imports by reinforcing its products standards is one of the main issues discussed.

Suggested Citation

  • Christel Ayasamy, 1996. "Politiques d'environnement, enjeux et compétitivité et règles du commerce international : un tour d'horizon," Revue Française d'Économie, Programme National Persée, vol. 11(3), pages 127-163.
  • Handle: RePEc:prs:rfreco:rfeco_0769-0479_1996_num_11_3_1100
    Note: DOI:10.3406/rfeco.1996.1100
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