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Égalité et équité: l'enjeu de la liberté Amartya Sen face à John Rawls et à l'économie normative

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  • Michel Maric

Abstract

[fre] La notion d'équité, telle qu'elle est employée dans le débat public, témoigne de la nécessité d'un retour aux textes de Rawls. Une con- frontation aux " capacités " de Sen permet d'exposer les soubassements d'un débat sur l'équité qui ne peut négliger l'égalité, au nom de la liberté. A l'égalitarisme des instruments de mesure utilisés en matière d'analyse de la répartition, Sen et Rawls substituent, en effet, la priorité de la liberté pour justifier des répartitions inégales. Si pour Rawls, l'équité est compatible avec des inégalités sur un ensemble d'avantages sociaux, pour Sen les inégalités ne sont tolérables que soumises à une visée d'égalité des opportunités dont disposent les individus au sein de l'organisation sociale et non uniquement sur un ensemble de " biens ", matériels ou immatériels, préalablement définis comme " premiers ". La traduction de ce débat en termes d'outils d'analyse ouvre de nouvelles perspectives pour la mesure du bien- être individuel et social. [eng] The notion of "equity", such as it's employed in the French public debate, testifies the necessity of a come back to Rawls's theory. A comparison with Sen's "capabilities" allows to expose the bases of a debate on equity which cannot neglect equality, in the name of liberty. To the egalitarianism of used measure instruments concerning distribution analysis, Sen and Rawls substitute, indeed, the priority of liberty to justify unequal distributions. If for Rawls, equity is compatible with inequalities on a social benefits set, for Sen, inequalities are bearable only if the aim is the equality of individual opportunities in social organization, and not solely on a set of "goods", material or immaterial, beforehand defined as "primary". The translation of this debate in terms of analysis instruments opens new perspectives for the measure of social and individual well-being.

Suggested Citation

  • Michel Maric, 1996. "Égalité et équité: l'enjeu de la liberté Amartya Sen face à John Rawls et à l'économie normative," Revue Française d'Économie, Programme National Persée, vol. 11(3), pages 95-125.
  • Handle: RePEc:prs:rfreco:rfeco_0769-0479_1996_num_11_3_1099
    Note: DOI:10.3406/rfeco.1996.1099
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