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Economie de l'entreprise : mais où est donc passé l'entrepreneur ? Un bilan critique des développements récents de la théorie de la firme

  • Eric Wanscoor
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    [fre] L'analyse économique traditionnelle aborde la production au travers de l'outil firme. Celle-ci, construite autour d'une fonction de production et d'un critère de décision, correspond parfaitement aux objectifs analytiques et au cadre de travail, mais ressemble peu à l'unité réelle. De nombreuses critiques furent dès lors faites, proposant de modifier les hypothèses fondamentales (notamment celle de maximisation), afin de mieux coller à la réalité sans trop affecter les résultats et le modèle allocatif de référence. S'est également développé un appareillage analytique conséquent, articulé autour des droits de propriété et des coûts de transaction, avec comme objectif de mieux comprendre les fondements existentiels de l'organisation firme face à la performance vantée du mécanisme d'échange du marché. Ce mouvement d'intégration des remarques par la théorie générale dominante, a occulté le développement d'approches alternatives plus axées sur les fondements mêmes de l'acte productif et ses racines entrepreneuriales (travaux de Leibenstein et de Casson), quand bien même les voies suggérées étaient de nature à apporter beaucoup à la compréhension de l'acte productif tout en assurant une forte correspondance avec la réalité de cet acte. [eng] Traditional economic analysis considers firm and production quite similarly. The firm is a production function with a decision critérium. This approach is convenient with the analytical frame but not with the reality. Some critics have been made and some assumptions were modify (first of all them maximization rule) in order to join reality without improving basic changes in the reference model. New tools (property rights and transaction costs) have been developped for a better understanding of firm's organization and a higher efficiency than the market transactional process. This integration of so many remarks by the General Neoclassical theory has occulted the development of the promisive and renewing alternative approachs of H. Leibenstein and M. Casson which are focalized on productive activity itself and enterpreneurial activity.

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    Article provided by Programme National Persée in its journal Revue française d'économie.

    Volume (Year): 10 (1995)
    Issue (Month): 3 ()
    Pages: 81-110

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    Handle: RePEc:prs:rfreco:rfeco_0769-0479_1995_num_10_3_985
    Note: DOI:10.3406/rfeco.1995.985
    Contact details of provider: Web page: http://www.persee.fr/web/revues/home/prescript/revue/rfeco

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