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Les délocalisations industrielles dans les pays en développement : Quels enjeux ?

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  • Jean-Pierre Petit

Abstract

[fre] L'objet de cet article est, après avoir mentionné quelques éléments sur la définition, les formes et l'évolution des délocalisations dans la période récente, de montrer tout d'abord que la crainte que ce débat soulève dans les pays industrialisés est pour partie infondée. La hausse de la part des pays en développement dans les échanges internationaux ne concerne que modérément les pays européens et la France et l'idée selon laquelle ces pays pratiqueraient une concurrence déloyale est largement injustifiée. En réalité, les délocalisations ne font que refléter une part de la transformation profonde des échanges internationaux depuis 20 ans. En outre, on présentera les enjeux des délocalisations pour l'économie mondiale (rappels théoriques, conséquences pour les pays en développement, conséquences sur l'emploi dans les pays industrialisés) en rappelant qu'une solution de repli communautaire pour l'Europe est à proscrire et qu'il vaut mieux poursuivre une stratégie ambitieuse d'ajustement. [eng] First, this paper aims at providing a few elements about the definition, forms and changes in relocations in the developing countries in recent years. Moreover, the fears that have been raised recently in France are not justified. The emergence of developing countries in world trade concerns moderatly European countries and France. In addition to this, the idea that developing countries practice unfair competition is not relevant. Actually, relocations reveal a deep transformation of international trade that has taken place in the last two decades. Besides, the text analyses the main implications of relocations on the global economy (theoretical presuppositions, consequences for the developing countries and for employment in the industrial countries), while stressing that a strength of the Community preference is not desirable and that it is more efficient to have an ambitious strengthening of internal and international adjustment.

Suggested Citation

  • Jean-Pierre Petit, 1995. "Les délocalisations industrielles dans les pays en développement : Quels enjeux ?," Revue Française d'Économie, Programme National Persée, vol. 10(3), pages 13-44.
  • Handle: RePEc:prs:rfreco:rfeco_0769-0479_1995_num_10_3_983
    Note: DOI:10.3406/rfeco.1995.983
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