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Technologie et territoire: l'organisation comme objet de recherche ?

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  • Michel Bellet

Abstract

[fre] La reconnaissance des formes d'innovation organisées territorialement (technopoles, districts technologiques, mais aussi systèmes nationaux d'innovation...) implique aujourd'hui de revenir sur les fondements de ce qui pourrait être leur analyse économique. En effet, les théories du changement technique, malgré certaines incursions, ont très peu traité de la dimension territoriale des phénomènes d'innovation. De leur côté, les analyses spatiales et les recherches en économie régionale ont éprouvé quelque difficulté à dépasser une conception de la technologie comme «boîte noire», transposée dans un cadre spatial récepteur. C'est seulement dans la dernière période que s'est constitué, des deux versants de l'analyse, un terrain plus favorable à un rapprochement utile : conception évolutionniste de la technologie introduisant la non-linéarité, importance reconnue aux interdépendances marchandes mais aussi non marchandes, et premiers éléments d'analyse économique des effets de proximité spatiale ont commencé à s'articuler. Ce rapprochement s'est concrétisé dans le recours commun à la notion d'organisation, et plus précisément à celle de réseau. Ce recours ne doit cependant pas masquer les différences sensibles entre deux approches: l'une, centrée sur la transaction, l'espace comme distance et la technologie comme information diffusable ; l'autre, centrée sur la coopération, le territoire comme externalité d'apprentissage et la technologie comme processus à spécifier. [eng] The recognition that forms of innovation are now organized on a territorial basis (technopoles and technological districts, but also national innovation systems) entails a fundamental réévaluation of their economic importance. Until now, theories of technical change have not shown much sustained interest in the territorial dimension of innovation phenomena. On the other hand, spatial analysis and regional economics have had some difficulty in seeing beyond their own conception of technology as a "black box" transposed into a receptive spatial framework. It has only been of late that on both sides an approach that is more conducive to closer research links has been developed: an evolutionary conception of technology introducing the notion of non linearity, the recognition of market and non- market interdépendance and the first step towards an economic analysis of the effects of spatial proximity have all begun to be articulated. The rapprochement between these two analyses can be seen in their joint use of the notion of organization, or more precisely, of network. This should not however mask the real differences between the two approaches: one focuses on the transaction and sees space as a distance and technology as a form of information that can be diffused; the other focuses on cooperation, sees territory as an externality in the learning process and technology itself as a process to be specified.

Suggested Citation

  • Michel Bellet, 1992. "Technologie et territoire: l'organisation comme objet de recherche ?," Revue Française d'Économie, Programme National Persée, vol. 7(1), pages 85-138.
  • Handle: RePEc:prs:rfreco:rfeco_0769-0479_1992_num_7_1_1302
    Note: DOI:10.3406/rfeco.1992.1302
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    Cited by:

    1. Guillem ACHERMANN, 2013. "Le système territorial d’innovation THE TERRITORIAL INNOVATION SYSTEM," Working Papers 261, Laboratoire de Recherche sur l'Industrie et l'Innovation. ULCO / Research Unit on Industry and Innovation.

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