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De la rationalité - de l'individu et des autres - dans un système économique


  • Kenneth J. Arrow


[eng] Standard economic doctrine makes assumptions of rationality which have very strong implications for the complexity of individuals' decision processes. The most complete assumptions of competitive general equilibrium theory require that all future and contingent prices exist and be known. In fact, of course, not all these markets exist. The incompleteness of markets has several side consequences for rationality. For one thing, each decision- maker has to have a model which predicts the future spot prices. This in an informational burden of an entirely different magnitude than simply optimizing at known prices. It involves all the complexity of rational analysis of data and contradicts the much-praised informational economy of the price system. It is also the case that equilibria become much less well defined. Similar problems occur with imperfect competition. [fre] La doctrine économique classique fait des hypothèses de rationalité qui ont des conséquences très importantes sur la complexité du processus de décision des individus. Les hypothèses les plus achevées de la théorie de l'équilibre général concurrentiel exigent que tous les prix, futurs et contingents, existent et soient connus. En fait, bien entendu, tous ces marchés n'existent pas. L'imperfection des marchés présente différentes conséquences secondaires pour la rationalité. D'une part, chaque intervenant doit avoir un modèle de prévision des prix courants futurs. C'est un travail d'information d'une ampleur totalement différente de celui d'une simple optimisation avec des prix connus. Cela met en jeu toute la complexité d'une analyse rationnelle de données et contredit le système économique, fort célébré, d'information par le système de prix. D'autre part, l'équilibre devient beaucoup moins bien défini. Des problèmes similaires se produisent avec une concurrence imparfaite.

Suggested Citation

  • Kenneth J. Arrow, 1987. "De la rationalité - de l'individu et des autres - dans un système économique," Revue Française d'Économie, Programme National Persée, vol. 2(1), pages 22-47.
  • Handle: RePEc:prs:rfreco:rfeco_0769-0479_1987_num_2_1_1128
    Note: DOI:10.3406/rfeco.1987.1128

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    Cited by:

    1. Fabrice Tricou, 1994. "Rationalité du comportement des marchands et règles d'organisation des marchés," Cahiers d'Économie Politique, Programme National Persée, vol. 24(1), pages 37-67.
    2. Laurent Thévenot, 1989. "Équilibre et rationalité dans un univers complexe," Revue Économique, Programme National Persée, vol. 40(2), pages 147-198.

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