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Quels effets attendre de réformes permettant de cumuler emploi et aide sociale? Une évaluation sur données expérimentales américaines

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  • Éric Maurin
  • Alisa Lewin

Abstract

[fre] Quel est l'effet de réserver l'aide sociale aux familles touchées par le chômage ? Dans quelle mesure cela génère-t-il des « trappes à chômage », les personnes privées d'emploi n'ayant pas assez d'incitation à reprendre un travail ? Dans cet article, nous éclairons cette question à l'aide de données expérimentales américaines. Nos résultats sont très différents des principales évaluations économétriques existantes, très éloignés également des hypothèses à l'origine des réformes récentes des dispositifs d'aide sociale dans de nombreux pays occidentaux. Dans notre expérience, les familles du groupe expérimental (à qui l'on permet de cumuler aide sociale et emploi) ne retournent ni plus, ni moins vite au travail que les familles du groupe de contrôle. En revanche, les familles du groupe expérimental persistent davantage dans l'aide sociale : une proportion non négligeable sort en effet du chômage sans sortir de la pauvreté. L'effet des réformes en cours un peu partout dans le monde occidental pourrait être non pas de réduire le chômage, mais d'accroître significativement la proportion de familles aidées et la charge financière de l'aide sociale. [eng] What is the work incentive effect of combining welfare with work ? A reassessment using experimental data What are the effects of making it possible to combine welfare with work? The existing literature suggests that this practice has strong work-incentive effects and represents a means for reducing unemployment and welfare dependency. In this paper we reassess this thesis using new us experimental data. Our findings differ from predictions based on survey data. We find that making it possible to combine welfare with work has only very limited incentive impacts on familles' work effort and significantly increases the welfare caseload.

Suggested Citation

  • Éric Maurin & Alisa Lewin, 2002. "Quels effets attendre de réformes permettant de cumuler emploi et aide sociale? Une évaluation sur données expérimentales américaines," Revue Économique, Programme National Persée, vol. 53(6), pages 1357-1368.
  • Handle: RePEc:prs:reveco:reco_0035-2764_2002_num_53_6_410472 Note: DOI:10.3406/reco.2002.410472
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