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La réforme du Welfare américain de 1996. Objectifs, méthodes d'évaluation, principaux résultats

Listed author(s):
  • Antoine Parent
  • Christel Gilles

[eng] The 1996 us welfare reform : goals, methodologies of evaluation, main outcomes This paper reviews the recent literature evaluating the effectiveness of us Welfare Reforms implemented in the 90's and based on a "Work First" Strategy applied mostly to single mothers beneficiaries of TANF. In the first section, we present in a historical perspective the 1996 Welfare Reform and its major characteristics. We address in the second section, the question of the methodologies adopted in the literature to assess the outcome of the Welfare Reform. In a third section, we present the most robust results provided by these various evaluation studies. Finally, in an open conclusion, we raise the issue of the scope of these results and underline the risks inferred by the Federal Welfare Reform 1996 on Single mothers in a weak macro-economic environment: should economic conditions deteriorate, there is a risk for leaving a fraction of the population without any safety net. [fre] La réforme de l'aide sociale aux États-Unis, fondée sur le retour à l'emploi des femmes seules avec enfants bénéficiaires du TANF, a donné lieu à de multiples évaluations qui ne présentent pas toutes les mêmes garanties de robustesse. Après avoir resitué la réforme fédérale de 1996 dans une perspective historique et présenté ses traits saillants, nous nous livrons à un examen critique des méthodes d'évaluation. Nous présentons les résultats les plus robustes issus de ces métho­des. Dans une conclusion ouverte, nous nous interrogeons sur la portée de ces résultats et soulignons les risques que fait courir cette réforme pour les femmes seules avec enfants dans un contexte économique de moindre croissance.

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Article provided by Programme National Persée in its journal Revue économique.

Volume (Year): 53 (2002)
Issue (Month): 6 ()
Pages: 1329-1355

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Handle: RePEc:prs:reveco:reco_0035-2764_2002_num_53_6_410471
Note: DOI:10.3406/reco.2002.410471
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