Privatisation et performances des firmes des économies de l'Est
[fre] Nous proposons une revue de la littérature consacrée, depuis la transition, aux liens entre l'organisation de la propriété et les performances des firmes de l'Est. Nous examinons les nombreuses études empiriques conduites sur ce thème et nous évoquons leurs résultats souvent contradictoires et quelquefois contraires aux attentes théoriques. Nous suggérons que le modèle principal-agent axé sur le conflit d'intérêt entre les dirigeants et les actionnaires, qui inspire ces travaux, est sans doute trop restrictif car il privilégie la seule relation privatisation-performance des firmes. Nous proposons de tenir compte des apports de la théorie du gouvernement d'entreprise qui met l'accent sur la relation compétition-efficacité des firmes. Nous soulignons le rôle que joue le renforcement des institutions de marché dans l'amélioration des performances du système productif à l'Est. [eng] Privatization and performance of eastern firms We propose a review of the usual literature, from the transition, to the links between the structure of property and the performance of eastern firms. We examine the numerous empirical studies which have been carried out on this subjet and we evoke their results which are often contradictory and sometimes opposite to theoretical expectations. We infer that the managerial model which inspires this study is undoubtedly too restrictive for it proritizes the single performance-privatization link of firms. We suggest taking into account the contribution of the contractualist model of the firm which emphasizes the efficiency-competitiveness link of firms. We underline the role which the intensification of market institutions plays in the improvement of the performance of the productive system in the East.
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