Le statut changeant de la corrélation en économétrie (1910-1944)
[eng] We study how the concept and measurement of correlation has been transformed as econometrics methodology was introduced. They were first imported from British biometrics studied at the turn of the century, then played a major part in the building of the economic barometers in the twenties, until they were abandonned in the forties, to be partly replaced by the theory of hypothesis testing in the Cowles Commission structural approach. We emphasize the fact that econometricians have to adapt correlation measurement to the economics objects and topics, and stress the fact that they do not have the same approach to the meanings and usages of correlation. [fre] Nous suivons les avatars d'un concept - la corrélation - et d'un outil - le coefficient de corrélation linéaire - dans les différentes étapes de la mise en place de la méthode économétrique, depuis leur importation à partir des travaux de la biométrie anglaise dans les premières années du siècle, jusqu'à leur abandon au profit de la théorie des tests dans l'approche structurelle de la Cowles Commission des années 1940, en passant par la période des baromètres économiques qui leur donna un rôle essentiel. Et nous montrons à la fois le travail des économètres pour adapter la mesure de corrélation aux objets et aux questions de l'économie, et la diversité des interprétations et des usages qu'ils lui ont attribuée.
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