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Naissance de l'Etat providence


  • Pierre Guillaume


[eng] The origins of the welfare state. . From the end of 19th century, in every industrial country of Europe, states have taken mesures of social protection, of variable importance. On 1938, the propagande of totalitarian governments of Italy, Germany and USSR allege the largest choice of mesures, with somme real effects. These effects are a major explanation of large adhesion of populations to the regimes. In democratic countries, all peoples attached to the traditional conception of liberal and non-interventionist state struggle against the emergence of welfare state. Scandinavian nations succeed in adoption of comprehensive legislations. During the inter-wars period, British government meet difficulties in application of mesures adopted before the first world war. In France a populationist and nationalist drift is a reply to the menace of totalitarisms. [fre] À des degrés divers, l'État, dans tous les pays industrialisés européens, a mis en place, depuis la fin du XIXe siècle, un certain nombre de mesures de protection sociale. En 1938, ce sont les pays totalitaires, Italie, Allemagne, URSS, qui affirment, par leur propagande, l'existence des éventails de mesures les plus larges. Cette propagande, accompagnée d'indéniables réalisations, joue un grand rôle dans la large adhésion des populations à ces régimes. Dans les démocraties, l'émergence de l'État providence se heurte à la résistance de tous ceux qui se réclament de la conception libérale traditionnelle d'un État non interventionniste. Les États Scandinaves n'en élaborent pas moins une législation fort complète. Dans l'entre-deux-guerres, la Grande-Bretagne n'applique que très imparfaitement des mesures votées dès avant 1914. En France, la dérive populationniste est réaction nationaliste à la montée des totalitarismes.

Suggested Citation

  • Pierre Guillaume, 2000. "Naissance de l'Etat providence," Revue Économique, Programme National Persée, vol. 51(2), pages 371-384.
  • Handle: RePEc:prs:reveco:reco_0035-2764_2000_num_51_2_410522
    Note: DOI:10.3406/reco.2000.410522

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