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The Failure of Economic Nationalism. Central and Eastern Europe Before World War II

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  • Ivan T. Berend

Abstract

[fre] L'échec du nationalisme économique : l'europe centrale et orientale avant la seconde guerre mondiale. . L'Europe centrale et orientale avait connu, avant 1914, l'échec de son effort d'industrialisation fondé sur l'exportation. Après la guerre, les pays de la région, dont la plupart venaient d'accéder à l'indépendance, se tournèrent vers le nationalisme économique. Le protectionnisme, associé à une politique ultra-interventionniste de l'État, permit de faire progresser la substitution aux importations, mais la croissance rapide se limitait aux industries de biens de consommation. L'autosuffisance était impossible, et la région devint partie intégrante du Grossraumwirtschaft hitlérien, puis de l'économie de guerre nazie durant les années 1930 et 1940. Une fois encore, l'industrialisation avait échoué : l'écart entre l'Est et l'Ouest demeurait toujours aussi grand. [eng] The export-led industrialization effort in pre-World War I Central and Eastern Europe failed. After the War the (mostly newly independent) countries of the region turned toward economic nationalism. Protectionism and aggressive state intervention helped import-substitution but led the rapid development only in consumer good industries. Self-sufficiency was impossible and the region became a part of Hitler's "Grossraumwirtschaft", then Nazi war economy during the 1930s and 1940s. Industrialization, again, failed and the gap between West and East remained as large as before.

Suggested Citation

  • Ivan T. Berend, 2000. "The Failure of Economic Nationalism. Central and Eastern Europe Before World War II," Revue Économique, Programme National Persée, vol. 51(2), pages 315-322.
  • Handle: RePEc:prs:reveco:reco_0035-2764_2000_num_51_2_410517
    Note: DOI:10.3406/reco.2000.410517
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    Cited by:

    1. Burger, Anna, 2005. "The Issue of Land Ownership and Rural Nationalism in the East Central European/ECE/Countries. A Case Study of Hungary," 2005 International Congress, August 23-27, 2005, Copenhagen, Denmark 24554, European Association of Agricultural Economists.
    2. Zweynert, Joachim & Goldschmidt, Nils, 2005. "The Two Transitions in Central and Eastern Europe and the Relation between Path Dependent and Politically Implemented Institutional Change," HWWA Discussion Papers 314, Hamburg Institute of International Economics (HWWA).
    3. Zweynert, Joachim & Goldschmidt, Nils, 2005. "The Two Transitions in Central and Eastern Europe and the Relation between Path Dependent and Politically Implemented Institutional Change," Freiburg Discussion Papers on Constitutional Economics 05/3, Walter Eucken Institut e.V..

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