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Intervention étatique et réarmement en France 1935-1939

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  • Robert Frankestein

Abstract

[eng] State interference and rearmament in France 1935-1939 . Robert Frankenstein. The considerable increase of State interference in French economy during the' 30s came less from the political will to find a solution to the crisis than from the necessity to re-arm imposed from the outside by the hitlerian threat. As a matter of fact, the burden of the military commitment on public expenditure, on national income and on industrial production was never so heavy. In view of the evident failure of private initiative, the State had to turn itself into manufacturer and banker ; this was achieved by the Front Populaire in 1936. After its fall, the reversed political trend in the following wage struggle during 1938-1939 favoured the employer s retaliation and the return of the profit margin. This was the price paid for the industrialists' co-operation to National Defence. In this contradictory process, the State gave itself a new industrial and bank interférence capacity and a new social arbitrage pcnver. The State's position came out of this rearmament period assuredly transformed on the eve of the second World War. [fre] publiques, sur le revenu national et la production industrielle, n'a jamais été aussi important. Devant les défaillances évidentes de l'initiative privée, l'Etat a dû se faire usinier et banquier — ce fut l'œuvre du Front populaire en 1936. Puis, après la défaite de celui-ci, lorsque le courant politique s'inverse, il favorise, dans la bataille des salaires qui s'engage en 1938-1939, la revanche patronale et la restauration du taux de profit : c'est alors le prix payé par lui pour la coopé­ration des industriels à l'effort de Défense nationale. Dans ce processus contradictoire, il s'est donné une nouvelle capacité d'intervention industrielle et bancaire, un nouveau pouvoir d'arbitrage social. Le rôle de l'Etat sort assurément transformé de cette période de réarmement, à la veille de la deuxième guerre mondiale.

Suggested Citation

  • Robert Frankestein, 1980. "Intervention étatique et réarmement en France 1935-1939," Revue Économique, Programme National Persée, vol. 31(4), pages 743-781.
  • Handle: RePEc:prs:reveco:reco_0035-2764_1980_num_31_4_408550
    Note: DOI:10.3406/reco.1980.408550
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