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Les motivations sociales de la consommation et le comportement des consommateurs

Listed author(s):
  • Philippe d'Iribane
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    [fre] A côté des satisfactions matérielles qu'elle procure (apaiser la faim, protéger du froid) la consommation intervient dans les rapports avec autrui. Elle est un facteur de prestige et intervient en outre dan» la plus ou moins bonne intégration de l'individu au sein du groupe social auquel il appartient. Un modèle donnant une représentation simplifiée des phénomènes mis en jeu permet d'examiner les répercussions de cet état de fait sur le comportement des consommateurs. Il permet en particulier de mieux voir comment les effets d'intégration : peuvent infléchir des comportements de consommation qui, pour des raisons quelconques, seraient déviants par rapport au comportement d'un groupe que l'individu ne veut pas ou ne peut pas quitter ; introduisent une certaine viscosité dans l'évolution de la consommation et peuvent permettre le maintien indéfini par la seule pression de l'habitude du groupe, de consommations n'ayant aucune autre motivation, mais que personne n'a intérêt à prendre l'initiative d'abandonner. Il permet également d'aborder certains mécanismes relatifs à la consommation dans une société où il existe plusieurs groupes sociaux entre lesquels il y a certaines possibilités de passage. On peut voir que plus ces possibilités sont fortes, plus chaque groupe tend à se constituer avec des individus ayant un même niveau de consommation, moins les différences de prestige entre groupes à niveau de consommation égal sont fortes, moins les problèmes d'intégration interviennent dans la fixation du niveau de consommation de chaque individu. [eng] Besides affording material satisfactions, such as appeasing hunger or protecting from the coid, consuming also interferes with one's relations with others. It is a factor of prestige, and moreover reveals how well an individual is intergrated into his social group. All this has repercussions on a consumer'» behaviour which may be studied by representing the factors involved in a simplified model, in order to get a clearer view of how the effects of integration : — can curb a consumer's behaviour which for varions reasons tends to deviate from the standard set by a social group which he does not wish or is not able to leave. introduce lack flexibility in the trend of consumption and can lead to lasting unmotivated consumption which no one sees any point in changing due to the pressure of group habit The model can also help to approach certain mechanisms relative to consump tion in society in which it is possible to choose between the many existing social groups It clear that the greater this possibility the greater the tendency of each group to gather individuals placed on same level of consumption the lesser the difference in prestige between groups placed on the same level of consumption the lesser the interference of integration problems with the fixing of each level of consumption.

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    Article provided by Programme National Persée in its journal Revue économique.

    Volume (Year): 21 (1970)
    Issue (Month): 1 ()
    Pages: 34-57

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    Handle: RePEc:prs:reveco:reco_0035-2764_1970_num_21_1_407902
    Note: DOI:10.3406/reco.1970.407902
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