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Les configurations du jeu politique local dans la nouvelle ruralité aux élections municipales de 1995 et 2001

  • Robert Bages
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    [eng] The configurations of local politic game in new rurality at municipal elections of 1995 and 2001 - This work results from municipal elections' analysis in 1995 and 2001 within 6 rural communes in South France. This has been the subject of a longitudinal unceasing observation for almost 30 years. The selection system of «eligibles» keeps its relevance in spite of increasing evolutions. The new rural population contributes to the progressive collapse of agricultural positions. Whereas town councils are opened more and more to new classes of residents, the establishing criterion be still present especially for the mayor's job. It is the same for the age criterion for all the increasing election of pensioner mayors. Town councils make the access easier and easier for women but, even if the exclusion time is over, we are still faraway from the parity. The community "live-together" tends to force back political rifts. These political rifts proceed through structural opposition systems which lost and make the originality local. It is during municipal elections that the competition organizes itself around local stakes being still linked to overall public policies. Therefore for example, the intercommunality starts to emerge as a stake. Moreover, this intercommunality is made commonplace and appropriate as a control intercommunality purely pragmatic and willing to confront the local identity. [fre] Ce travail résulte de l'analyse des élections municipales de 1995 et 2001 dans 6 communes rurales du sud de la France, objet depuis près de 30 ans d'une observation longitudinale continue. Le système de sélection des éligibles y garde sa pertinence en dépit de fortes évolutions. La recomposition de la population rurale contribue à l'effondrement progressif des positions agricoles. Alors que les conseils municipaux s'ouvrent de plus en plus aux nouvelles catégories de résidents, le critère d'enracinement persiste, en tout cas pour le poste de maire. On peut en dire autant du critère d'âge, malgré l'élection croissante de maires retraités. L'accès des femmes aux conseils municipaux s'ouvre progressivement ; mais, si le temps de leur exclusion est bien révolu, on est encore loin de la parité. Les clivages politiques, que le vivre-ensemble communautaire tend à refouler et tient plus ou moins masqués, opèrent cependant à travers des systèmes d'opposition structurés qui perdurent et font la spécificité locale. La compétition lors des élections municipales s'organise autour d'enjeux locaux, nullement déconnectés toutefois des politiques publiques globales. Ainsi l'intercommunalité commence-t-elle par exemple à émerger comme enjeu, étant par ailleurs banalisée et appropriée comme intercommunalité de gestion, purement pragmatique et visant à conforter l'identité locale.

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    File URL: http://dx.doi.org/doi:10.3406/ecoru.2004.5484
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    File URL: http://www.persee.fr/doc/ecoru_0013-0559_2004_num_281_1_5484
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    Article provided by Programme National Persée in its journal Économie rurale.

    Volume (Year): 281 (2004)
    Issue (Month): 1 ()
    Pages: 59-80

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    Handle: RePEc:prs:recoru:ecoru_0013-0559_2004_num_281_1_5484
    Note: DOI:10.3406/ecoru.2004.5484
    Contact details of provider: Web page: http://www.persee.fr/collection/ecoru

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    1. R. Bages & J.-Y. Nevers, 1978. "Choix des élus, systèmes d'opposition et enjeux locaux dans les luttes municipales à la campagne," Économie rurale, Programme National Persée, vol. 128(1), pages 45-56.
    2. Marie-Françoise Souchon-Zahn, 1997. "Les maires en milieu rural," Économie rurale, Programme National Persée, vol. 237(1), pages 19-21.
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