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Communautés de pratique et réseaux sociaux dans la dynamique de fonctionnement des clusters de hautes technologies

Listed author(s):
  • Ludovic Dibiaggio
  • Michel Ferrary

[fre] La dynamique de développement d'un cluster de hautes technologies dépend de la présence au sein d'une zone géographique déterminée de l'ensemble des pôles d'expertise complémentaires et interdépendants permettant la création et la croissance des entreprises. Cet article fait le lien entre la théorie des liens forts et faibles de Granovetter et les approches en termes d'apprentissage situé pour montrer que la production d'expertise (scientifique, technologique, industrielle, managériale, financière, juridique) repose sur l'existence de liens forts entre les membres d'une même communauté de pratique. En revanche, la diffusion de l'expertise et la coordination des acteurs de ces systèmes décentralisés nécessitent l'existence de liens sociaux faibles entre communautés. Du fait de l'interdépendance systémique entre ces communautés, l'absence de l'une d'entre elles affaiblit la dynamique d'ensemble du cluster. [eng] The development of high tech clusters depends on the spatial proximity of a set of complementary and interdependent competencies, which contribute to entrepreneurship and firms' growth. Relating Granovetter's theory of strong and weak ties to situated learning approaches, this articles contends that the existence of strong ties between members of communities of practice is a condition for the production of scientific, technological, industrial, legal, financial and managerial expertise. In addition, weak ties between communities are the condition for the diffusion of these expertises and for the mutual coordination of actors in highly decentralised systems. Because of systemic interdependencies of communities of practice, the lack of any one expertise weakens the dynamics of the whole cluster.

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Article provided by Programme National Persée in its journal Revue d'économie industrielle.

Volume (Year): 103 (2003)
Issue (Month): 1 ()
Pages: 111-130

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Handle: RePEc:prs:recind:rei_0154-3229_2003_num_103_1_3112
Note: DOI:10.3406/rei.2003.3112
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