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Le cinéma, une industrie ancienne de la nouvelle économie

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  • Jean-Marc Siroën

Abstract

[fre] Le cinéma est une industrie spécifique du fait, notamment, de l'importance de ses charges fixes, d'une non-rivalité dans sa consommation, de son mode de tarification et de ses différents circuits de diffusion. Malgré l'explosion de supports concurrents, le cinéma en salle connaît depuis une dizaine d'années une phase d'expansion qui confirme la domination du cinéma américain. Elle s'appuie sur une complémentarité des supports qui efface la substituabilité qui était à l'origine de la crise. Si la spécificité du cinéma empêche ce secteur de fonctionner sur un mode concurrentiel, l'article montre que la stratégie des grands producteurs (majors) et la structure même de l'industrie conduisent vraisemblablement à un niveau de production insuffisant, notamment en ce qui concerne les films à audience limitée (relativement aux grandes productions). Cette situation justifie une intervention publique dès lors que celle-ci est ciblée sur les distorsions susceptibles d'être corrigées. Le système français de financement constitue un succès qui pourrait être amélioré par un ciblage plus fin et un soutien plus marqué à la fréquentation en salles. [eng] Cinema is a specific industry characterized by high fixed costs, non-rivalry of consumers, an exogenous price and different channels of diffusion. Despite of the boom of rival media (TV, recorders, DVD, etc.), the cinema in theaters is a growing industry which reinforces the domination of the American movies. The channels of diffusion are complementary rather than substitutes and the competition between media cannot be incrimated to the cause of a presumed crisis. Because this specificity the industry cannot work with the rules of perfect competition. The paper shows that the strategy of the big producers (majors) and the structure of the industry drive to a suboptimal level of production in all likelihood, mainly for the movies with relatively few spectators. This case might legitimate public interventions oriented to the elimination of the distortions. The French system to finance the industry, even successful in some aspects, should be improved with a more precisely defined targering and with consumer-oriented interventions.

Suggested Citation

  • Jean-Marc Siroën, 2000. "Le cinéma, une industrie ancienne de la nouvelle économie," Revue d'Économie Industrielle, Programme National Persée, vol. 91(1), pages 93-118.
  • Handle: RePEc:prs:recind:rei_0154-3229_2000_num_91_1_1773
    Note: DOI:10.3406/rei.2000.1773
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