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Les dons en faveur du clergé français émigré, collectés dans l'Empire de Russie en 1794 et 1798


  • Julie Ollivier-Chakhnovskaia


[eng] Abstract In 1974-1975 and in 1797-1799 two public collections were organised in Russia for French refractory priests and poor families having fled the French Revolution and having emigrated notably to Switzerland in the region of Constance. These collections targeting the nobility and the Russian sovereigns Catherine II (1762-1796) and then Paul I (1796-1801) are surprising in a country of orthodox religion. Correspondence between ecclesiastics and representatives of Russian authority, as well as administrative documents held in different Russian archives, clarify the reasons for the two collections, their practical organisation and their results, but in particular enable a greater understanding of relations between the Russian Empire and these petitioners, and in a more general manner with French emigration. A previously unpublished letter from Archbishop Juigné of Paris, addressed to the Emperor of Russia, Paul I, sent from Constance in Switzerland on 24 February 1797, preserved in the Archives of External Politics of the Russian Empire in Moscow, is included in the annex. It evokes cleverly the 1794 collection, the hopeless situation of immigrants in Switzerland and asks the Tsar's permission to organise a new collection in the Empire. [fre] Résumé En 1794-1795 et en 1797-1799, deux quêtes publiques sont organisées en Russie en faveur des prêtres réfractaires français et des familles pauvres, ayant fui la Révolution de France et émigrés notamment en Suisse, dans la région de Constance. Ces collectes, auprès de la noblesse et des souverains russes Catherine II (1762-1796) puis Paul Ier (1796-1801), sont surprenantes dans un pays de religion orthodoxe. La correspondance entre ces ecclésiastiques et les représentants du pouvoir russe, ainsi que des documents administratifs, conservés dans différentes archives russes, éclaircissent les raisons de ces collectes, leur organisation pratique, et leurs résultats, mais surtout permettent de mieux comprendre les rapports de l'Empire de Russie à ces solliciteurs, et de manière plus générale à l'émigration française. Une lettre inédite de l'archevêque de Paris Juigné, adressée à l'Empereur de Russie Paul 1er, de Constance en Suisse, le 24 février 1797, conservée dans les Archives de la Politique Extérieure de l'Empire de Russie à Moscou, est jointe en annexe. Elle évoque habilement la collecte de 1794, la situation désespérée des émigrés en Suisse, et demande au tsar la permission de réaliser une nouvelle quête dans l'Empire.

Suggested Citation

  • Julie Ollivier-Chakhnovskaia, 2006. "Les dons en faveur du clergé français émigré, collectés dans l'Empire de Russie en 1794 et 1798," Histoire, économie & société, Programme National Persée, vol. 25(4), pages 45-59.
  • Handle: RePEc:prs:hiseco:hes_0752-5702_2006_num_25_4_2618 Note: DOI:10.3406/hes.2006.2618

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