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Sonderweg et monde rural. Un essai de redéfinition de l'exception allemande

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  • Edouard Husson

Abstract

[fre] Résumé . Ce qui caractérise l'Allemagne du début du XXe siècle, c'est la conjugaison entre une industrialisation accélérée elle est beaucoup plus lente en France) et le maintien d'une population active rurale relativement importante avant 1914 (quatre fois plus qu'en Grande-Bretagne). De ce point de vue, le Sonderweg, l'exception allemande, n'a pas relevé seulement de l'idéologie, il était le produit réel d'une politique imaginée par Bismarck et réalisée par le maintien d'un consensus conservateur et protectionniste. Or, la Première Guerre mondiale est venue rompre cet équilibre. Elle a définitivement ébranlé le pouvoir économique de la grande aristocratie foncière. La plupart des marchés à l'exportation ont été perdus durant les quatre ans du conflit. Le monde des petits et moyens propriétaires, en particulier en milieu protestant, s'est détaché de ses anciens « patrons », qui n'avaient pas été capables, durant la guerre, de défendre ses intérêts et qui se raccrochaient en vain, après la guerre, aux recettes de l'époque wilhelmienne : protectionnisme et solidarité de tous les ruraux. [eng] Abstract . Germany followed at the beginning of the 20fh century a specific path to modernity: it was characterized by the maintaining of a relatively important rural population in the middle of industrialization. The German exception, the so-called Sonderweg, was not only an ideological phenomenon; it was the result of a policy imagined by Bismarck and realized through a conservative and protectionist consensus. WW1 destroyed the balance of German society. The economic power of the land aristocracy was deeply shaken. Most of the export markets were lost during the conflict. The middle class of landowner ship, above all among Protestants, loosened the ties with their former protectors, who had not been able to defend their interests during the war and who cultivated after the war the illusion of maintaining the recipes of the Wilhelmina era: protectionism and solidarity in the rural world.

Suggested Citation

  • Edouard Husson, 2006. "Sonderweg et monde rural. Un essai de redéfinition de l'exception allemande," Histoire, économie & société, Programme National Persée, vol. 25(3), pages 411-419.
  • Handle: RePEc:prs:hiseco:hes_0752-5702_2006_num_25_3_2611
    Note: DOI:10.3406/hes.2006.2611
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