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Les magistrats en révolte en 1789 ou la fin du rêve politique de la monarchie des juges

  • Michel Figeac
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    [fre] Résumé À partir d'une analyse historiographique, cet article invite à une relecture du comportement des parlementaires à la veille de la Révolution. En effet, si ce mouvement de révolte fut souvent considéré comme l'ultime réflexe archaïque de privilégiés, c'est en grande partie à cause d'une lecture très partielle de remontrances. Celles-ci s'appuyaient toujours sur la tradition historique, sur les textes anciens, sur des événements comme la Fronde, mais ces principes ancestraux étaient relus au service d'un discours politique neuf dont les Lumières, notamment Montesquieu, n'étaient pas absentes. Fascinés par le pouvoir et se voulant les garants des lois fondamentales, les juges avaient transformé l'opinion en jury jusqu'à l'appel aux États Généraux. Ils n'avaient pas perçu que le souverain n'occupant plus sa position d'arbitre que face à une assemblée, ils ne joueraient pas longtemps leur rôle d'instance de représentation auquel ils prétendaient, d'où l'irréversibilité de l'échec. [eng] Abstract From an historical analysis, this article invites to read again the behaviour on parlementaries just before the Revolution. Indeed, if this movement of revolt was often regarded as the ultimate archaic reflex of priviledged people, it is largely because of an incomplete reading of remonstrances. Those were always based upon the historical tradition, on ancient texts, on events such as the Fronde, but these ancestral principles were read according to a new political speech where the Enlightenment, among them Montesquieu, was not absent. Fascinated by power and wanting to preserve the Fundamental Laws, the Judges had changed the public opinion into a jury until the Estates General were called for. They had not realised, as the King was only an arbitrator in front of an Assembly, that they would not play the representative authority they claimed for a long time, whence the irreversible failure.

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    Article provided by Programme National Persée in its journal Histoire, économie et société.

    Volume (Year): 25 (2006)
    Issue (Month): 3 ()
    Pages: 385-400

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    Handle: RePEc:prs:hiseco:hes_0752-5702_2006_num_25_3_2608
    Note: DOI:10.3406/hes.2006.2608
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