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Les grandes banques allemandes et leurs activités dans l'Europe occidentale occupée, 1940-1944

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  • Johannes Bähr

Abstract

[fre] Résumé . Les grandes banques allemandes ont développé leurs activités pendant la Seconde Guerre mondiale dans pratiquement tous les pays occupés ou annexés. En Europe occidentale, leurs stratégies étaient différentes de celles poursuivies à l'Est. La Deutsche Bank, la Dresdner Bank et la Commerz-bank y ont privilégié une large collaboration avec les banques nationales. Ce n'est que dans les territoires annexés (Alsace, Lorraine, Luxembourg et Belgique orientale) qu'elles ont pris le contrôle des banques locales dans le cadre d'une Germanisierung brutale. La collaboration dans les pays occidentaux occupés a effectivement fonctionné, mais sans atteindre les attentes allemandes. Les banquiers belges, hollandais et français n'étaient généralement pas d'accord pour céder des participations dans les entreprises de leur pays à l'Allemagne. Les banques allemandes ont également mené une politique différente aux Pays-Bas et en Belgique qu'en France. À Amsterdam et à Bruxelles, elles ont implanté des succursales spécialisées dans la fourniture de services aux entreprises allemandes et à l'administration d'occupation. Elles étaient aussi impliquées dans des transactions concernant les dépôts pillés aux populations juives. À Paris, les banques allemandes ont seulement installé après l'armistice des représentations dépourvues d'activité bancaire propre. L'ensemble de leurs initiatives dans la France occupée reposait sur des partenaires locaux. Le contraste entre les modèles développés, d'une part, en France et, d'autre part, aux Pays-Bas et en Belgique ne résultait pas à de degrés variables de collaboration, mais de politiques d'occupation et de marchés des capitaux différents. [eng] Abstract . The Major German Banks expanded during the Second World War in nearly all annexed and occupied territories. They pursued in Western Europe other strategies than in the East. In Western Europe the Deutsche Bank, Dresdner Bank and Commerzbank struggled not for takeovers but for an extensive collaboration of domestic banks. Only in annexed territories (Alsace, Lorraine, Luxembourg, Eastern Belgium) they took over branches of domestic banks as part of a ruthless Germanisierung. The collaboration in the occupied West-European countries worked effective, but fell short of German expectations. Belgian, Dutch and French bankers usually not agreed to sell interests of firms in their countries to Germany. German banks also developed in the Netherlands and in Belgium other activities than in France. In Amsterdam and Brussels they established subsidiaries. The- se banks were specialized on services for German firms and the occupying administration. They were also involved in transactions with looted deposits of the Jewish population. In Paris German banks established after the armistice only representatives without own banking trade. Their entire business in occupied France was transacted over domestic partners. The contrast between the patterns in France and in the Netherlands respectively Belgium resulted not from different grades of collaboration, but from different occupation policies and capital markets.

Suggested Citation

  • Johannes Bähr, 2005. "Les grandes banques allemandes et leurs activités dans l'Europe occidentale occupée, 1940-1944," Histoire, économie & société, Programme National Persée, vol. 24(4), pages 495-511.
  • Handle: RePEc:prs:hiseco:hes_0752-5702_2005_num_24_4_2567
    Note: DOI:10.3406/hes.2005.2567
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