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Guerre, influences politiques et relais d'opinions publiques. Étude de cas : le Mexique face à la guerre civile espagnole

  • Eddy Noblet
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    [eng] The Spanish civil war (1936-1939) does not leave anybody indifferent. It unleashes political passions and summons pressure groups. Public opinions identify themselves with one camp or the other of a Spain divided in two. The great European powers fight each other through Spanish republicans and nationalists, to whom they lend their support. An official non-interventionist policy, arbitrated by the League of Nations, stops momentarily the logical bellicose chain towards a European civil war. Beyond the European boundaries, the Spanish civil war also unleashes passions. A similar conflict is anticipated in Mexico, where it does not only take into account opposite ideological forces, like in France, but also clashes about the definitions of a proper Mexican national identity. Thus the imagery of the Spanish conquest is revived. The supporters of "hispanity" and "indigenists" fight exploiting the Spanish civil war dialectics. The Mexican- government has many political and cultural affinities with the Spanish "Frente popular". It supports the Spanish republi- cans at the League of Nations and provides them with oil, food and weapons. The Mexican inter - ventionism is not as efficient as the Axis powers' in favour of the supporters of Franco, but it acts as a pressure group to make the Western democracies, which are paralysed with a desire of European peace at all costs, feel guilty. Nevertheless, the international position of such a country as Mexico, which has not got the means of its political ambitions, remains of minor importance. [fre] La guerre civile espagnole (1936-1939) ne laisse pas indifférente. Elle agite les passions politiques et mobilise les groupes de pression. Sur la scène internationale, les opinions publiques s'identifient à l'un ou à l'autre des camps d'une Espagne coupée en deux. Les grandes puissances européennes se battent entre elles par républicains et nationalistes espagnols interposés à qui elles apportent leur soutien. Une politique officielle de non-intervention, arbitrée par la Société des Nations, enraye momentanément l'enchaînement logique belliqueux vers une guerre civile européenne. Au- delà des frontières de l'Europe, la guerre d'Espagne agite également les passions. Un conflit similaire est anticipé au Mexique. Il ne prend pas seulement en compte des forces idéologiques opposées, comme en France, mais aussi des confrontations sur les définitions d'une identité nationale proprement mexicaine. L'imaginaire de la conquête espagnole est ainsi ravivé. Les partisans de «Fhispanité» et les «indigénistes» s'affrontent en récupérant la dialectique de la guerre d'Espagne. Le gouvernement mexicain a de nombreuses affinités politiques et culturelles avec le Frente popular espagnol. Il soutient les républicains d'Espagne à la Société des Nations et leur fournit du pétrole, des denrées alimentaires et des armes. L'interventionnisme mexicain n'a pas la même efficacité que celui des pays de l'Axe vis-à-vis des franquistes mais il agit comme un groupe de pression pour culpabiliser les démocraties occidentales paralysées par un désir de paix européenne à tout prix. Toutefois la position internationale d'un pays comme le Mexique qui n'a pas les moyens de ses ambitions politiques reste secondaire.

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    Article provided by Programme National Persée in its journal Histoire, économie et société.

    Volume (Year): 23 (2004)
    Issue (Month): 3 ()
    Pages: 397-409

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    Handle: RePEc:prs:hiseco:hes_0752-5702_2004_num_23_3_2431
    Note: DOI:10.3406/hes.2004.2431
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