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Chemins de fer et développement régional en France de 1852 à 1937 : la contribution de la compagnie du Midi

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  • Christophe Bouneau

Abstract

[fre] Résumé : La plus mal lotie des grandes Compagnies ferroviaires françaises, la Compagnie du Midi, mena de 1852 à 1937 une politique de développement régional particulièrement complète. Liant étroitement l'expansion économique du Sud-Ouest et celle de son trafic, le «Midi» prit en charge trois actions d'envergure. Il contribua d'abord à la spécialisation de l'agriculture, à la modernisation de ses techniques de production et de ses méthodes de commercialisation. D'autre part il provoqua l'établissement d'un complexe d'industries nouvelles en développant une electrification ferroviaire étendue. Enfin son aménagement d'une infrastructure touristique intégrée diversifia l'activité du littoral et du massif pyrénéen et assura la promotion d'une image de marque plus séduisante. Après la période fondatrice des Péreire, cette politique multiforme connut son apogée durant rentre-deux-guerres avec le directeur Jean-Raoul Paul et son équipe d'ingénieurs modernisateurs. Seule entreprise de dimension régionale, le «Midi» se substituait alors aux entrepreneurs et à l'État défaillants : il anticipait sur la politique nationale d'aménagement du territoire. [eng] Abstract The pleasure trip on railway began in France on 26 August 1837 when the first line which joined Pans to Saint-Germain for only passengers opened. Emile Percire, the founder of this line wanted to give Parisians a «toy» to accustomed them to railway. It was a success, wa can consider it by the analysis of this special traffic, the search of adequate tariffs but also by the comfort which was proposed in three classes The reports of passengers, novelists, journalists, bring us an inestimated information on this subject Passengers related their impressions about the new way of transport. They decided to make a pleasure trip for curiosity in railway itself or for only delight To this first aspect of pleasure trip in the surroundings of Paris, the companies of Paris-Rouen and Rouen-Le Havre gave an important impulse They organized as far as 1847 excursions trains to seaside The «Compagnie des chemins de fer de l'Ouest» created in 1855 improved the system and proposed different sorts of travel : to sea-bathing, to make long excursions in Normandy, Brittany and special trip for manifestations such as boat-racing, agricultural show, horse-racing The line of Saint-Germain consequently broke new ground in pleasure trip, the «Compagnie des chemins de fer de l'Ouest» developped that kind of travel and thus announced touring by railway.

Suggested Citation

  • Christophe Bouneau, 1990. "Chemins de fer et développement régional en France de 1852 à 1937 : la contribution de la compagnie du Midi," Histoire, économie & société, Programme National Persée, vol. 9(1), pages 95-112.
  • Handle: RePEc:prs:hiseco:hes_0752-5702_1990_num_9_1_1568
    Note: DOI:10.3406/hes.1990.1568
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