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Qualification ouvrière et rentabilité des entreprises

Listed author(s):
  • Alain Azouvi
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    [fre] Il est coutumier d'étudier la croissance et la rentabilité des entreprises à partir de la productivité du travail, du coût des facteurs de production et du niveau des prix. Une analyse complète devrait également faire intervenir la qualification du travail avec sa double influence sur le coût du travail et sur la productivité moyenne. Au cours de la dernière décennie les entreprises ont connu une forte modification des conditions de leur activité (suscitée notamment par l'ouverture des frontières). Pour maintenir leur compétitivité, leur croissance et leur rentabilité, elles ont utilisé divers moyens selon le contexte international, l'action de la puissance publique, le comportement des salariés, les spécificités sectorielles, etc. L'amélioration de la productivité apparente du travail, avec ou sans intensifications du travail, avec ou sans modification des processus de production, la pesée sur les coûts salariaux, la hausse des prix ont été quelques-uns de ces moyens. Parallèlement, les disponibilités en main-d'œuvre ont connu des changements liés à l'augmentation des taux d'activité féminins et à l'immigration. Ces changements ne doivent pas être indépendants de la politique des entreprises vis-à-vis de l'emploi de la main-d'œuvre. C'est pourquoi on a cherché à examiner de près et comparer les évolutions de six grandes branches de l'industrie en portant tout particulièrement l'attention sur la qualification des ouvriers. [eng] Workers skill firms profitability - Firms growth and profitability are usually examined according to labour productivity, production factors cost and level of prices. A comprehensive analysis should also comprise labour skill and its effect upon labour cost and average productivity. In the course of the past ten-year period, firms activity conditions were greatly modified, mainly on account of the opening of frontiers. In order to keep up their com petitivity, growth and profitability, firms made use of various measures according to the international context, public: powers'action, wage earners attitude, sectorial characteristics, et caetera.. The improvement of the apparent labour productivity, either with more intensive labour or not, with alterations of production process or not, wage costs burden and rising prices were some of the measures adopted by the firms. In a parallel direction, available labour-force was affected by alterations linked with the increase of female activity rates and immigration.. Such changes must not.be apart from firms' policy in regard to labour-force employment and lead to examine closely and to compare the evolutions of six main industrial branches while paying a particular attention to workers skill. [spa] Calificación obrera y rentabilidad empresarial - De costumbre se estudia el crecimiento y rentabilidad empresarial a partir de la productividadi laboral, costo de los factores de producción y nivel de precios. Un análisis completo debería también de integrar la calificación laboral con la doble influencia que produce en el coste laboral y la productividad media.. En el transcurso del pasado decenio, las empresas experimentaron importantes modificaciones ; con relación a las condiciones de su actividad, debidas mayormente a la apertura de las fronteras. Con objeto de mantener su competitividad, crecimiento y rentabilidad, emplearon diversas me didas según el contexto international, la acción de los poderes estatales, el comportamiento de los asalariados, las características sectoriales, etcetera. El mejoramiento de la productividad laboral aparente, con o sin intensificación laboral, con o sin modificación de los procesos productivos, el peso de los costes salariales y el alza de precios constituyen algunas de esas medidas. Paralelamente, la fuerza laboral disponible expérimentó cambios vinculados con el incremento de los coeficientes de actividad femenina y la inmigración. Dichos cambios no han de ser independientes de la politica empresarial con relación al empleo de la fuerza laboral. Por esta razón se intenté examinar desde cerca y equiparar el desarrollo de seis importantes ramas industrials, enfocando particularmente la calificación obrera.

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    File URL: http://dx.doi.org/doi:10.3406/estat.1975.1764
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    File URL: http://www.persee.fr/doc/estat_0336-1454_1975_num_70_1_1764
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    Article provided by Programme National Persée in its journal Economie et statistique.

    Volume (Year): 70 (1975)
    Issue (Month): 1 ()
    Pages: 3-15

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    Handle: RePEc:prs:ecstat:estat_0336-1454_1975_num_70_1_1764
    Note: DOI:10.3406/estat.1975.1764
    Contact details of provider: Web page: http://www.persee.fr/collection/estat

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